The town of Edmeston, in Otsego County, extends to the west as far as the Unadilla River, a line that was established by the 1768 Treaty of Fort Stanwix between the British and the Iroquois, negotiated by Sir William Johnson. The town's name came from the brothers, Robert and William Edmeston, who had been granted of land in what is now the northwest corner of the town. The hamlets of West Edmeston and South Edmeston are situated in the Unadilla Valley, while the hamlet of Edmeston lies in the Wharton Valley. Earlier settlers came from New England; for most of the settlers, it was planned as a stopover on their way west. A strong Baptist influence came with the settlers. Universalists, Methodists and Roman Catholics soon arrived.
The town was established from the Town of Burlington in 1808.
Dairy farming has historically been the main business of the area. Cheese factories, creameries, livery stables, blacksmith shops, and tanneries were created to support the dairy industry. One room schoolhouses were scattered throughout the town. By damming the creeks, power was created for foundries and mills. Hop growing and maple syrup production were seasonal occupations. Each of the town's communities developed business districts and became self-sufficient. The last spike of the Edmeston branch of the Ontario & Western RR from New Berlin, was driven at Edmeston in January, 1889, but a rumoured extension to Richfield Springs was never built. Then cars, buses and trucks arrived on the scene. Dams were washed out and electricity became available. The hamlets evolved into bedroom communities. The one room schoolhouses closed and the Central School was developed in the hamlet of Edmeston.
Today residents go in all four directions for employment. NYCM Insurance Company not only provides positions for many of the locals but also for hundreds that commute into the community each day. On the Eastern side of the town is the Pathfinder Village (home for Down Syndrome residents) that provides more employment.
The population of the town has not increased much through the years. It still remains largely rural. Organizations like the local Rotary Club, American Legion and Fire and Emergency Squads have active volunteers that provide community needs in lieu of governments in the hamlets. Edmeston Central School is the center of activities.