The Town of Eaton is in the south-central part of the county. US Route 20 passes across the northern part of the town.
The town was the principal location of the Oneida tribe, a sub-group of the Iroquois that allied itself with the colonial forces during the American Revolution. Euro-American settlement began around 1792. The Town of Eaton was formed in 1807 from the Town of Hamilton. Eaton is named for William Eaton, a Revolutionary officer and commander of the United States military forces in Tripoli.