The civil parish is formed by the village of Eastrington and the hamlets of Newland, Owsthorpe, and Portington. According to the 2011 UK census, Eastrington parish had a population of 1,147, an increase on the 2001 UK census figure of 880.
The village is served by Eastrington railway station (formerly "South Eastrington") on the Hull to Selby railway line, and was historically also served by North Eastrington railway station on the Hull and Barnsley Railway.
Historically, Eastrington was an ecclesiastical parish in the wapentake of Howdenshire. From 1894 until 1974, Eastrington was located in Howden Rural District. Eastrington civil parish absorbed the neighbouring parishes of Thorpe and Portington and Cavil in 1935.
In 1974 most of what had been the East Riding of Yorkshire was joined with the northern part of Lincolnshire to became a new English county named Humberside. The urban and rural districts of the former counties were abolished and Humberside was divided into non-metropolitan districts. The new organization did not meet with the pleasure of the local citizenry and Humberside was wound up in 1996. The area north of the River Humber was separated into two "unitary authorities"—Kingston-upon-Hull covering the former City of Hull and its closest environs, and the less urban section which, once again, named itself the East Riding of Yorkshire.