The area that became known as Duvall was historically the home of the Snoqualmie and other ancestral Tulalip Native American tribes. Following their relocation under the Treaty of Point Elliott, the area was homesteaded by veterans of the Civil War. The center of present-day town was located on a hillside homesteaded by Francis and James Duvall, loggers who arrived in 1871.
An early milestone in the settlement of Duvall proper was the relocation of the town of Cherry Valley. Around 1909, the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Railroad agreed to move Cherry Valley homes and businesses to Duvall in order to continue the construction of a railroad line along the Snoqualmie River. The newly relocated town, briefly named Cosgrove after Samuel G. Cosgrove, underwent a real estate boom; streets and sidewalks were laid and a train depot was constructed. This was followed by construction of a movie house, a drug store, a new schoolhouse, and several hotels. By 1911, the Duvall Citizen began publishing regular editions of news events.
On April 28, 1968, nearly 3,000 fans attended a rock concert at a farm in Duvall where an upright piano was dropped from a helicopter. Performances included Country Joe and the Fish. This concert is well-known to locals as the Piano Drop. This event inspired the Sky River Rock Festival and Lighter Than Air Fair which occurred later that year.
The town of Duvall has experienced a great amount of construction during the period of 2008-2009 with the aim of making the one-road town center more accessible and presentable to tourists.