The Town of Coventry is in the south part of Chenango County and is northeast of Binghamton.
The first settlement occurred around 1785 near the current Coventry village. Coventry was formed from the Town of Greene in 1806. In 1843, the area of the town was increased from parts of Greene and the Town of Oxford.
Due to poor soil conditions, dairy herding was prominent from the pioneer days, leading to five butter and cheese factories in the town at one time in the past.