Place:Cornwall, England

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NameCornwall
Alt namesCnwllsource: BIAB Online (1999-2000) accessed 16 Dec 2002
CONsource: Chapman County Code (GENUKI)
Cornsource: Gazetteer of Great Britain (1999) xvii
Cornouaillessource: Cassell's French Dictionary (1981) p 107
Cornovagliasource: Cassell's Italian Dictionary (1983) p 131
Cornwall and Isles of Scillysource: Webster's Geographical Dictionary (1984)
Cornwall and the Isles of Scillysource: UK National Statistics web site
Cournuallessource: Cassell's Spanish Dictionary (1990) p 711
Curnowsource: Wikipedia
Kernowsource: Wikipedia
TypeHistoric county, Administrative county, Modern county
Coordinates50.263°N 5.051°W
Located inEngland
Contained Places
Civil parish
Breage
Callington
Carn Brea
Chacewater
Fowey ( 100 - )
Grade-Ruan ( 1934 - )
Gwennap
Gwinear
Gwithian
Illogan
Ludgvan
Luxulyan
Madron
Maker-with-Rame
Mawgan
Mylor
North Petherwin ( 1966 - )
Northcott ( 1966 - )
Padstow
South Hill
St. Austell Rural (parish) ( 1894 - 1934 )
St. Austell
St. Cleer
St. Columb Minor Rural ( 1894 - 1934 )
St. Endellion
St. Mawgan
St. Michael-Carhayes
St. Minver
St. Stephen-in-Brannel
St. Stephens by Launceston Rural
Stithians
Werrington ( 1966 - )
District
Isles of Scilly
North Cornwall
Former parish
Ruan-Minor
Hamlet
Lamorran
Woolley
Hundred
East (hundred)
Kerrier (hundred)
Lesnewth (hundred)
Penwith (hundred)
Powder (hundred)
Pyder (hundred)
Stratton (hundred)
Trigg (hundred)
West (hundred)
Inhabited place
Altarnun
Antony
Bodmin
Bolventor
Boscastle
Bossiney
Bowithick
Breage
Bude
Bugle
Callington
Calstock
Camborne
Camelford
Carbis Bay
Constantine
Coombe
Crantock
Creed
Crowan
Davidstow
Delabole
Doublebois
Downderry
Durgan
East Looe
Egloskerry
Falmouth ( 100 - )
Flushing
Fowey ( 100 - )
Foxhole
Goldsithney
Grampound
Great Tree
Gunnislake
Gweek
Gwennap
Gwinear
Harlyn
Hayle
Helston
Hugh Town
Kilkhampton
Lamorna
Lanhydrock
Lanreath
Launceston
Leedstown
Lelant
Liskeard
Lizard
Lostwithiel ( 500 - )
Ludgvan
Luxulyan
Madron
Maer
Marazion
Mevagissey
Millbrook
Morwenstow
Mount Hawke
Mousehole
Mullion
Mylor Bridge
Nanstallon
Newlyn East
Newlyn
Newport
Newquay
North Hill
North Petherwin ( 1966 - )
Old Kea
Padstow
Par
Pelynt
Penryn
Pensilva
Penzance
Perranporth
Poldhu
Polgooth
Polperro
Polruan
Polzeath
Pool
Port Isaac
Porthcurno
Porthleven
Porthpean
Porthtowan
Portreath
Poughill
Poundstock
Praze-An-Beeble
Probus
Redruth
Roche
Rock
Saltash
Sennen
St. Agnes (near Redruth)
St. Austell
St. Blazey
St. Columb Major
St. Columb Road
St. Day
St. Dennis
St. Endellion
St. Erth
St. Germans
St. Hilary
St. Ives
St. Just in Penwith
St. Keverne
St. Mawes
St. Merryn
St. Michael-Carhayes
St. Minver
St. Neot
St. Stephen-in-Brannel
St. Tudy
Stratton
Talskiddy
Tintagel
Todpool
Torpoint
Trebetherick
Treen
Tregony
Tremough
Tresco Abbey ( 500 - )
Trevena
Trewarthenick
Trewellard
Treyarnon
Troon
Truro ( 1000 - )
Tywardreath
Veryan
Wadebridge
Week-St. Mary
West Looe
Widemouth Bay
Island
St. Agnes (Isles of Scilly)
Island group
Isles of Scilly
Parish
St. Ive (near Liskeard)
St. Ives
St. John
St. Stephen's by Saltash
St. Thomas-by-Launceston
Rural district
Bodmin Rural ( 1894 - 1934 )
Calstock Rural ( 1894 - 1934 )
Camelford Rural ( 1894 - 1974 )
East Kerrier Rural ( 1894 - 1934 )
Helston Rural ( 1894 - 1934 )
Kerrier Rural ( 1934 - 1974 )
Launceston Rural ( 1894 - 1974 )
Liskeard Rural ( 1894 - 1974 )
Redruth Rural ( 1894 - 1934 )
St. Austell Rural ( 1894 - 1974 )
St. Columb Major Rural ( 1894 - 1934 )
St. Germans Rural ( 1894 - 1974 )
Stratton Rural ( 1894 - 1974 )
Truro Rural ( 1894 - 1974 )
Wadebridge Rural ( 1934 - 1968 )
Wadebridge and Padstow Rural ( 1968 - 1974 )
West Penwith Rural ( 1894 - 1974 )
Unknown
Advent
Baldhu
Balwest
Blisland
Boconnoc
Bodriggy
Bolingey
Boscoppa
Boslimon
Botus Fleming
Boyton
Broadoak
Bryher
Budock
Caradon
Cardinham
Carharrack
Carnyorth
Cawsand
Charlestown
Chy-an-Gwall
Colan
Come-to-Good
Cornelly
Coverack
Creegbrawse
Crowsan-Wra
Cubert
Cuby
Cury
Cusgarne
Devoran
Duloe
Edgcumbe
Egloshayle
Forrabury
Germoe
Gerrans
Godolphin
Gorran
Grade
Grampound Road
Gulval
Gunwalloe
Halestown
Heamoor
Helland
Herodsfoot
Hessenford
Jacobstow
Kea
Kenwyn
Kerley
Ladock
Landewednack
Landrake
Landulph
Lane
Laneast
Lanhargy
Lanherne
Lanivet
Lanjeth
Lanlivery
Lannarth
Lansallos
Lanteglos-by-Fowey
Launcells
Lawhitton
Lesnewth
Levan
Lewannick
Lezant
Linkinhorne
Little Falmouth
Little Petherick
Mabe
Manaccan
Marham-Church
Markwell
Mawnan
Menheniot
Merther
Michaelstow
Minster
Mitchell
Mithian
Morvah
Morval
Nancegollan
Nancekuke
Newlyn (near St. Columb-Major)
North Tamerton
Otterham
Paul
Pendeen
Penponds
Pentewan
Penwartha
Penwerris
Perranarworthal
Perranuthnoe
Perranwell
Perranzabuloe
Phillack
Philleigh
Pillaton
Polkerris
Polyphant
Ponsanooth
Porthkea
Portscatho
Praze
Quethiock
Rame
Rejerrah
Rilla Mill
Rose
Ruan-Lanihorne
Ruan-Major
Sancreed
Sheviock
Sithney
South Petherwin
St. Allen
St. Anthony-in-Meneage
St. Anthony-in-Roseland
St. Breock
St. Breward
St. Buryan
St. Clement
St. Clether
St. Columb Minor ( - 1974 )
St. Dominick
St. Enoder
St. Erme
St. Erney
St. Ervan
St. Eval
St. Ewe
St. Feock
St. Gennys
St. Gluvias
St. Issey
St. Juliot
St. Just-in-Penwith
St. Just-in-Roseland
St. Kew
St. Keyne
St. Mabyn
St. Martin (Scilly Islands)
St. Martin (near Liskeard)
St. Martin-in-Meneage
St. Mary
St. Mellion
St. Mewan
St. Michael's Mount
St. Michael-Penkevil
St. Nectan
St. Nighton
St. Pinnock
St. Sampson
St. Teath
St. Thomas-Street
St. Veep
St. Wenn
St. Winnow
Sticker
Stoke-Climsland
Talland
Temple
Towednack
Townshend
Tregadillet
Tregavethan
Trekenner
Trelawne
Treleigh
Tremayne
Treneglos
Trenwheal
Trescoe
Treslothan
Tresmeer
Trethurgy
Trevaldlock
Trevalga
Treverbyn
Trewen
Trewint
Tuckingmill
Warbstow
Warleggan
Washaway
Wendron
Whitstone
Withiel
Zelah
Zennor
Urban district
Camborne-Redruth ( 1934 - 1974 )
source: Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names
source: Family History Library Catalog


the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Cornwall (British English pronunciation: or ; ) is a unitary authority and ceremonial county of England, within the United Kingdom. Cornwall is a peninsula bordered to the north and west by the Celtic Sea, to the south by the English Channel, and to the east by the county of Devon, over the River Tamar. Cornwall has a population of and covers an area of . The administrative centre, and only city in Cornwall, is Truro, although the town of St Austell has a larger population.

Cornwall forms the westernmost part of the south-west peninsula of the island of Great Britain, and a large part of the Cornubian batholith is within Cornwall. This area was first inhabited in the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic periods. It continued to be occupied by Neolithic and then Bronze Age peoples, and later (in the Iron Age) by Brythons with distinctive cultural relations to neighbouring Wales and Brittany. There is little evidence that Roman rule was effective west of Exeter and few Roman remains have been found. Cornwall was the home of a division of the Dumnonii tribe – whose tribal centre was in the modern county of Devon – known as the Cornovii, separated from the Brythons of Wales after the Battle of Deorham, often coming into conflict with the expanding English kingdom of Wessex before King Athelstan in AD 936 set the boundary between English and Cornish at the Tamar. From the early Middle Ages, British language and culture was apparently shared by Brythons trading across both sides of the Channel, evidenced by the corresponding high medieval Breton kingdoms of Domnonee and Cornouaille and the Celtic Christianity common to both territories.

Historically tin mining was important in the Cornish economy, becoming increasingly significant during the High Middle Ages and expanding greatly during the 19th century when rich copper mines were also in production. In the mid-19th century, however, the tin and copper mines entered a period of decline. Subsequently china clay extraction became more important and metal mining had virtually ended by the 1990s. Traditionally fishing (particularly of pilchards), and agriculture (particularly of dairy products and vegetables), were the other important sectors of the economy. The railways led to the growth of tourism during the 20th century, however, Cornwall's economy struggled after the decline of the mining and fishing industries. The area is noted for its wild moorland landscapes, its long and varied coastline, its many place-names derived from the Cornish language, and its very mild climate. Extensive stretches of Cornwall's coastline, and Bodmin Moor, are protected as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty.

Cornwall is the traditional homeland of the Cornish people and is recognised as one of the Celtic nations, retaining a distinct cultural identity that reflects its history. Some people question the present constitutional status of Cornwall, and a nationalist movement seeks greater autonomy within the United Kingdom in the form of a devolved legislative assembly, and greater recognition of the Cornish people as a national minority.

Contents

History

the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Prehistory, Roman and post-Roman periods

The present human history of Cornwall begins with the reoccupation of Britain after the last Ice Age. The area now known as Cornwall was first inhabited in the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic periods. It continued to be occupied by Neolithic and then Bronze Age peoples. According to John T. Koch and others, Cornwall in the Late Bronze Age was part of a maritime trading-networked culture called the Atlantic Bronze Age, in modern-day Ireland, England, France, Spain and Portugal. During the British Iron Age Cornwall, like all of Britain south of the Firth of Forth, was inhabited by a Celtic people known as the Britons with distinctive cultural relations to neighbouring Wales and Brittany. The Common Brittonic spoken at the time eventually developed into several distinct tongues, including Cornish.

The first account of Cornwall comes from the Sicilian Greek historian Diodorus Siculus (c. 90 BCE  – c. 30 BCE), supposedly quoting or paraphrasing the 4th-century BCE geographer Pytheas, who had sailed to Britain:


The identity of these merchants is unknown. It has been theorised that they were Phoenicians, but there is no evidence for this. (For further discussion of tin mining see the section on the economy below.)

There is little evidence that Roman rule was effective west of Exeter in Devon and few Roman remains have been found. However after 410, Cornwall appears to have reverted to rule by Romano-Celtic chieftains of the Cornovii tribe as part of Dumnonia including one Marcus Cunomorus with at least one significant power base at Tintagel. 'King' Mark of Cornwall is a semi-historical figure known from Welsh literature, the Matter of Britain, and in particular, the later Norman-Breton medieval romance of Tristan and Yseult where he is regarded as a close kinsman of King Arthur; himself usually considered to be born of the Cornish people in folklore traditions derived from Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae. Archaeology supports ecclesiatical, literary and legendary evidence for some relative economic stability and close cultural ties between the sub-Roman Westcountry, South Wales, Brittany and Ireland through the fifth and sixth centuries.

Conflict with Wessex

The Battle of Deorham in 577 saw the separation of Dumnonia (and therefore Cornwall) from Wales, following which the Dumnonii often came into conflict with the expanding English kingdom of Wessex. The Annales Cambriae report that in 722 AD the Britons of Cornwall won a battle at "Hehil". It seems likely that the enemy the Cornish fought was a West Saxon force, as evidenced by the naming of King Ine of Wessex and his kinsman Nonna in reference to an earlier Battle of Lining in 710.

The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle stated in 815 (adjusted date) "and in this year king Ecgbryht raided in Cornwall from east to west." and thenceforth apparently held it as a ducatus or dukedom annexed to his regnum or kingdom of Wessex, but not wholly incorporated with it. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle states that in 825 (adjusted date) a battle took place between the Wealas (Cornish) and the Defnas (men of Devon) at Gafulforda. In the same year Ecgbert, as a later document expresses it, "disposed of their territory as it seemed fit to him, giving a tenth part of it to God." In other words he incorporated Cornwall ecclesiastically with the West Saxon diocese of Sherborne, and endowed Ealhstan, his fighting bishop, who took part in the campaign, with an extensive Cornish estate consisting of Callington and Lawhitton, both in the Tamar valley, and Pawton near Padstow.

In 838, the Cornish and their Danish allies were defeated by Egbert at Hengestesdune (probably Hingston Down in Cornwall). In 875, the last recorded king of Cornwall, Dumgarth, is said to have drowned. Around the 880s, Anglo-Saxons from Wessex had established modest land holdings in the eastern part of Cornwall; notably Alfred the Great who had acquired a few estates. William of Malmesbury, writing around 1120, says that King Athelstan of England (924–939) fixed the boundary between English and Cornish people at the east bank of the River Tamar.[1]

Norman-Breton period

One interpretation of the Domesday Book is that by this time the native Cornish landowning class had been almost completely dispossessed and replaced by English landowners, particularly Harold Godwinson himself. However, the Bodmin manumissions show that two leading Cornish figures nominally had Saxon names, but these were both glossed with native Cornish names. Naming evidence cited by medievalist E.M.R. Ditmas suggests that many post-Conquest landowners in Cornwall were Breton allies of the Normans and further proposed ths period for the early composition of the Tristan and Iseult cycle by poets such as Beroul from a pre-existing shared Brittonic oral tradition.

Soon after the Norman conquest most of the land was transferred to the new Breton-Norman aristocracy, with the lion's share going to Robert, Count of Mortain, half-brother of King William and the largest landholder in England after the king with his stronghold at Trematon Castle near the mouth of the Tamar. Cornwall and Devon west of Dartmoor showed a very different type of settlement pattern from that of Saxon Wessex and places continued, even after 1066, to be named in the Celtic Cornish tradition with Saxon architecture being uncommon.

Later medieval administration and society

Subsequently, however, Norman absentee landlords became replaced by a new Cornu-Norman elite. These families eventually became the new ruling class of Cornwall (typically speaking Norman French, Cornish, Latin and eventually English), many becoming involved in the operation of the Stannary Parliament system, Earldom and eventually the Duchy. The Cornish language continued to be spoken and it acquired a number of characteristics establishing its identity as a separate language from Breton.

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