From the Domesday Book we know Earl Harold held the manor, and in 1256 the village was named 'Collingbourne Earls', after the Lord of the Manor, the Earl of Leicester. John of Gaunt inherited the manor, became the Duke of Lancaster, and the village was thus known as Collingbourne Ducis or Dukes.
The Bourne Iron Works in the village was established by James Rawlings in the 1860s and made agricultural implements until the outbreak of World War II.
In 1882 the village was connected to the railway network, but lost its rail connection during the reduction of the network in the 1960s when the Beeching report, The Reshaping of British Railways, was implemented.
In 1974 a Saxon cemetery of archeological significance was discovered in Cadley, and in 1998 a Saxon settlement was found in Saunders Meadow during the construction of a housing estate.