Cavan-Monaghan is a township in Peterborough County in central-eastern Ontario, Canada. It is located 20 km southwest of the City of Peterborough. It was formed from the former townships of Cavan and North Monaghan in 1998 (see History section).
Ontario GenWeb has a sketchmap of the original townships.
The map of Peterborough County circa 1951 from Ontario Archives locates the individual municipalities, townships, city, towns and villages of the county.
This section is based on an article in Wikipedia.
The townships of Cavan (originally in Durham County) and North Monaghan were surveyed by John Deyell in 1817, and named after County Cavan and County Monaghan in Ireland, from which many of its settlers had emigrated. In 1819, there were 244 settlers, but by 1861 the population had risen to 4,900, many of whom were descendants of United Empire Loyalists, and veterans of the War of 1812 who had been granted land there, or the original and later settlers from Ireland. After Canadian Confederation in 1867, the population began to drop as many families left for Western Canada.
The Township of Cavan and the Village of Millbrook became part of Peterborough County in 1974, and were amalgamated, along with North Monaghan, into one township — Cavan-Millbrook-North Monaghan — in 1998. In 2007, the township was renamed Cavan-Monaghan, as many thought the older name was too long.
The township includes the communities of Carmel, Cavan, Cedar Valley, Fraserville, Ida, Millbrook, Mount Pleasant, South Monaghan, Springville and Tapley. None are incorporated and a couple are relegated to just names on a map as cars made transportation easier and service areas concentrated in fewer nodes.
The primary source for basic documents (vital statistics, land records, wills) for people who lived in the Province of Ontario is the Archives of Ontario, 134 Ian Macdonald Blvd, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M7A 2C5.
Civil registration did not begin in the province until 1869. Before then there may be church records of baptisms and burials. For the most part these are still held by the denomination who recorded them. Copies of marriage records made pre-1869 had to be sent by individual clergymen to the registrar of the county in which the marriage took place. These marriage records are available through Ontario Archives, on micorfilm through LDS libraries, and on paid and unpaid websites, but because they were copied at the registrars' offices, they cannot be considered a primary source.
Vital Records after 1869
Birth, marriage and death registrations are not open to the public until a specific number of years after the event occurred. Births to 1914 are now available [October 2012]; dates for marriages and deaths are later. Birth and death registration was not universally carried out in the early years after its adoption. Deaths were more apt to be reported than births for several years. The more rural the area, the less likely it would be that these happenings were reported to the authorities.
Land Records and Wills
Information on how to access land records and wills is best sought on the Archives of Ontario website. An ancestor's land holding might be found on Canadian County Atlas Digital Project if he was in occupancy circa 1878.
Association for the Preservation of Ontario Land Registry Office Documents (APOLROD). A list of Land Registry Offices for all Counties of Ontario.
The original censuses are in the hands of Library and Archives Canada. All of the original census (1851-1911) images are online with the exception of that for 1861. Not all of them are indexed. Later censuses are not yet available. Census divisions were redrawn as the population increased and more land was inhabited.
E-books and Books
Some websites with more local information on Durham County
Some websites with more local information on Peterborough County