Boulia is a town in Central West Queensland, Australia. It is located approximately by road south of Mount Isa, and lies on the Burke River, which was named after the explorer Robert O'Hara Burke who passed through the area with the Burke and Wills expedition in 1860. The township was gazetted in 1879. Boulia is the administrative centre of the Boulia Shire, population approximately 600, which covers an area of . At the 2011 census, Boulia had a population of 230, up from 205 in 2006.
The climate is very hot and dry, with on average over 200 days per year over . Although even in June and July the average maximum is a very warm , frosts are not unknown in the morning during these months. Annual rainfall is extraordinarily erratic: it has been as low as in 1905 and in 1963. However, when the monsoon is strong rainfall can be heavy: in January 1974 Boulia received of rain and in March 1950 . Maximum annual rainfall totals are in 1950 and in 1974, but the median annual rainfall is only .
The area is best known for sightings of the Min Min lights, mysterious shimmering lights that appear at night. The lights are said to be caused by atmospheric refraction that occurs when cold air is trapped below warmer air, a phenomenon known as Fata Morgana.