Place:Bolzano, Trentino-Alto Adige, Italy

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NameBolzano
Alt namesSouth Tyrol
Alto Adigesource: Wikipedia
Bolzanosource: Getty Vocabulary Program
Bolzano provincesource: Getty Vocabulary Program
Provincia Autonoma di Bolzano-Alto Adigesource: Wikipedia
Südtirolsource: Encyclopædia Britannica (1988) XI, 914
Südtirolsource: Wikipedia
TypeProvince
Coordinates46.717°N 11.5°E
Located inTrentino-Alto Adige, Italy
Contained Places
General region
Alto Adige
Inhabited place
Aldino
Anterselva di Sopra
Appiano
Avelengo
Badia
Bolzano
Braies
Brennero
Bressanone
Bronzolo
Brunico
Burgusio
Cadipietra
Caldaro
Campo Tures
Campo di Trens
Campolasta
Carbonin
Cardano
Castelbello-Ciardes
Casteldarne
Certosa
Chienes
Chiusa
Coldrano
Collalbo
Colle Isarco
Cortaccia
Corvara in Badia
Curon Venosta
Dobbiaco
Egna
Fiè
Fleres
Fortezza
Gais
Gargazzone
Glorenza
Gomagoi
La Villa
Laces
Lagundo
Laives
Lana
Landro
Lappago
Lasa
Lutago
Madonna
Magrè
Malles Venosta
Mareta
Marlengo
Martello
Merano ( 500 - )
Monastero
Monguelfo
Mosini di Tures
Moso in Passiria
Moso
Mules
Mázia
Nalles
Naturno
Nova Ponente
Novale
Ora
Ortisei
Parcines
Pennes
Ponte Gardena
Postal
Prato allo Stelvio
Predoi
Racines
Rasun di Sopra
Rasun di Sotto
Ridanna
Rifiano
Riva di Tures
Rodengo
Salorno
San Candido
San Felice
San Genesio Atesino
San Giacomo
San Giovanni
San Leonardo
San Martino in Badia
San Martino in Casies
San Martino
San Nicolò d'Ultimo
San Paolo
San Pietro
San Sigismondo
Santa Cristina
Santa Gertrude
Santa Valburga in Ultimo
Sarentino
Scena
Sciaves
Selva
Senale
Sesto
Silandro
Siusi
Sluderno
Soprabolzano
Spondigna
Terlano
Terme del Brennero
Termeno
Tesimo
Tires
Tirolo
Tisana
Trafoi
Tubre
Valdurna
Vandoies
Varna
Velturno
Villa Ottone
Villabassa
Villandro
Vipiteno
Unknown
Aica di Fié
Aica
Albes
Andriano
Anterivo
Antermoia
Anterselva
Appiano in Oltradige
Auna di Sopra
Auna di Sotto
Avigna
Barbiano
Bulla
Caines
Campodazzo
Carnedo all'Isarco
Casies
Castel Badia
Castel San Michele
Castel Selva
Castel d'Appiano
Castel d'Enne
Castel di Caldivo
Castelforte al Dirsin
Castello di Scaunica
Castelrotto
Castelvecchio di Caldaro
Cauria
Cengles
Cermes
Chiesa Santa Maria
Ciardes
Clusio
Colfosco
Collepietra
Colma
Colsano
Cornaiano
Corona
Cortina all'Adige
Corvara
Dodiciville
Elle
Eores
Falzes
Favogna di Sotto
Foiana
Frangarto
Fundres
Funes
Griès
Gudon
Juvale
La Valle
Lacinigo
Laghetti
Laion
Lana d'Adige
Laudes
Lauregno
Lazfons
Longiarù
Longomoso
Lusòn
Maia Alta
Maia Bassa
Mantana
Maragno
Maranza
Margrè
Meltina
Merona
Mezzaselva
Millan
Montagna
Montassilone
Monte San Pietro
Monte Trumes
Monte a Mezzodi
Montechiaro
Montefontana in Venosta
Montefranco di Lacigno
Morter
Niclara
Noci
Nova Levante
Novacella
Novale di Vipiteno
Novemasi
Onies
Penone
Perca
Piavenna
Pieve di Marebbe
Plan
Planol
Plata
Plaus
Pochi
Ponte Adige
Pra di Sopra
Prati di Tesido
Prato all'Isarco
Prato alla Drava
Prato alla Stelvio
Predonico
Proves
Quarazze
Rasun Valdaora
Redagno
Rencio
Rina
Rio di Pusteria
Riobianco
Riomolino
Riscone
Ronco
Sala in Termeno
Salora
San Benedetto di Rodengo
San Cassiano
San Genesio
San Giacomo in Cinte
San Leonardo in Passiria
San Lorenzo di Sebato
San Lugano
San Martino al Monte
San Martino in Passiria
San Michele
San Nicolo di Caldaro
San Nicolo di Ultimo
San Pancrazio
San Pietro in Aurina
San Valentino alla Muta
San Valentino in Campo
San Vigilio
San Vito in Braies
Sant'Andrea in Monte
Sant'Orsola
Santa Caterina
Santa Geltrude
Santa Maddalena
Santa Valpurga Ultimo
Sarnes
Scezze
Scàleres
Selva dei Molini
Selva in Gardena
Senales
Slingia
Solda
Sorafurcia
Spinga
Stava
Stelvio
Stilves
Stulles
Tablà
Talle
Tarces di Sopra
Tarres
Telves
Teodone
Terento
Tesido
Tiles
Trodena
Tures
Val Venosta
Val d'Ega
Val di Vizze
Valdaora di Sopra
Valdaora di Sotto
Valgiovo
Vallarga
Valle di Casies
Valles
Vanga
Velasio
Verano
Versciaco
Vezzano
Vila di Sopra
Villa d'Uta
Vilpiano
Vádena
source: Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names
source: Family History Library Catalog


the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

South Tyrol (German and Ladin: Südtirol, Italian: Sudtirolo), also known by its Italian name Alto Adige, is an autonomous province in northern Italy. It is one of the two autonomous provinces that make up the autonomous region of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol. The province has an area of and a total population of 511,750 inhabitants (31.12.2011). Its capital is the city of Bolzano (German: Bozen; Ladin: Balsan or Bulsan).

The majority of the population is of Austro-Bavarian heritage and speaks German. Around a quarter of the population speak Italian as first language, mainly concentrated to the two largest cities (Bolzano and Merano), and a small minority have Ladin as their mother language.

South Tyrol is granted a considerable level of self-government, consisting of a large range of exclusive legislative powers and a fiscal regime that allows the province to retain 90% of most levied taxes. Today, South Tyrol is among the wealthiest and most developed regions in Italy and the European Union.

In the wider context of the European Union, the province is one of the three members of the Euroregion of Tyrol-South Tyrol-Trentino, which corresponds almost exactly to the historical region of Tyrol.

Contents

History

the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Italian annexation of 1919

South Tyrol is an administrative entity whose origins go back to World War I. In 1915, the Entente promised the area to Italy in The London Treaty as an incentive to enter the war on their side. Until 1918 part of the Austro-Hungarian Princely County of Tyrol, this almost completely German-speaking territory was occupied by Italy at the end of the war in November 1918 and was annexed in 1919. The province as it exists today was created in 1926 after an administrative reorganization of the Kingdom of Italy and was incorporated together with the province of Trento into the newly created region Venezia Tridentina.

Under the Italian fascist Mussolini-government, huge efforts were made to bring forward the Italianization of South Tyrol. The German language was banished from public service, German teaching was officially forbidden and German newspapers were censored with the exception of the fascist Alpenzeitung. The regime massively favoured immigration from other Italian regions.

The subsequent alliance between Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini declared that South Tyrol would not follow the destiny of Austria, which had been annexed to the Third Reich. Instead the dictators agreed that the German-speaking population be transferred to German-ruled territory or dispersed around Italy, but the outbreak of the Second World War prevented them from fully carrying out their relocation.

In 1943, when the Italian government signed an armistice with the Allies, the region was occupied by Germany, which reorganised it as the Operation Zone of the Alpine Foothills and put it under the administration of Gauleiter Franz Hofer. The region was de facto annexed to the German Reich (with the addition of the province of Belluno) until the end of the war. This status ended along with the Nazi regime, and Italian rule was restored in 1945.

Gruber-De Gasperi Agreement

After the war the Allies decided that the province would remain a part of Italy, under the condition that the German-speaking population be granted an important level of self-government. Italy and Austria negotiated an agreement in 1946, recognizing the rights of the German minority. Alcide De Gasperi, Italy's prime minister, a native of Trentino, wanted to extend the autonomy to his fellow citizens. This led to the creation of the region called Trentino-Alto Adige/Tiroler Etschland. The Gruber-De Gasperi Agreement was signed by the Italian and Austrian Foreign Ministers, creating the autonomous region of Trentino-South Tyrol, consisting of the autonomous provinces of Trentino and South Tyrol. German and Italian were both made official languages, and German-language education was permitted once more. However, as the Italians were the majority in the combined region, the self-government of the German minority became impossible.

This, together with the arrival of new Italian-speaking immigrants, led to strong dissatisfaction among South Tyroleans, which culminated in terrorist acts perpetrated by the Befreiungsausschuss Südtirol (BAS — Committee for the Liberation of South Tyrol). In a first phase only public edifices and fascist monuments were targeted. The second phase was bloodier, costing 21 lives (15 members of Italian security forces, two civilians and four terrorists).

Südtirolfrage

The South Tyrolean question (Südtirolfrage) became an international issue. As the implementation of the post-war agreement was not seen as satisfactory by the Austrian government, it became a cause of significant friction with Italy and was taken up by the United Nations in 1960. A fresh round of negotiations took place in 1961 but proved unsuccessful, partly because of the campaign of terrorism.

The issue was resolved in 1971, when a new Austro-Italian treaty was signed and ratified. It stipulated that disputes in South Tyrol would be submitted for settlement to the International Court of Justice in The Hague, that the province would receive greater autonomy within Italy, and that Austria would not interfere in South Tyrol's internal affairs. The new agreement proved broadly satisfactory to the parties involved and the separatist tensions soon eased.

The new autonomous status, granted from 1972 onwards, has resulted in a considerable level of self-government, also due to the large financial resources of South Tyrol, retaining almost 90% of all levied taxes.

Autonomy

In 1992, Italy and Austria officially ended their dispute over the autonomy issue on the basis of the agreement of 1972.

The extensive self-government[1] provided by the current institutional framework has been advanced as a model for settling interethnic disputes and for the successful protection of linguistic minorities. This is among the reasons why the Ladin municipalities of Cortina d'Ampezzo/Anpezo, Livinallongo del Col di Lana/Fodom and Colle Santa Lucia/Col have asked in a referendum to be detached from Veneto and reannexed to the province, from which they were separated under the fascist government.

Euroregion

In 1996, the Euroregion Tyrol-South Tyrol-Trentino was formed between the Austrian state of Tyrol and the Italian provinces of South Tyrol and Trentino. The boundaries of the association correspond to the old County of Tyrol. The aim is to promote regional peace, understanding and cooperation in many areas. The region's assemblies meet together as one on various occasions and have set up a common liaison office to the European Union in Brussels.

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