Place:Bihar, India

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NameBihar
Alt namesBeharsource: Cambridge World Gazetteer (1990) p 77
Bihārsource: Getty Vocabulary Program
Bihār statesource: Getty Vocabulary Program
TypeState
Coordinates25.0°N 86.0°E
Located inIndia     (1947 - )
Contained Places
District
Araria
Arwal
Aurangabad
Banka
Begusarai
Bhojpur
East Champaran
Gaya
Gopalganj
Jamui
Jehanabad
Kaimur
Katihar
Khagaria
Kishanganj
Lakhisarai
Madhepura
Muzaffarpur
Nalanda
Nawada
Rohtas
Saharsa
Samastipur
Sheikhpura
Sheohar
Sitamarhi
Siwan
Supaul
Vaishali
West Champaran
Former nation/state/empire
Magadha
Inhabited place
Akbarpur
Ariah
Arrah
Asanbāni
Asansol
Aurangabad Bihar
Bagaha
Bagodar
Baharagora
Baidyanāth
Bakhri
Bakhtiyārpur
Banmankhi
Bar Bigha
Bara Bāngurda
Baratolia
Barh
Barharwa
Barhi
Barhiya
Barka Kāna
Barki Saraiya
Barwa
Barākar
Barām
Belhar
Benagaria
Bengabad
Bermo
Bettiah
Bhabua
Bhagaiya
Bhojudih
Bihariganj
Bihta
Bihār Sharīf
Bisrāmpur
Bodh Gaya
Bokaro
Bundu
Buxar
Bābupur
Bāmangawān
Bānskupi
Bāra Jamda
Bāra
Bāruni
Chainpur
Chakradharpur
Champapur
Chandankiāri
Chandil
Chatra
Chaupāran
Chhattarpur
Chirki
Chākia
Chākulia
Chās
Chāībāsa
Colgong
Dalkola
Dalsingh Sarai
Danapur
Daudnagar
Dehri
Deoghar
Dhaka
Dhanbad
Dhowa
Dinapore
Dohhi
Dumka
Dumra
Dumraon
Dāltenganj
Fatwa
Forbesganj
Garwa
Gawan
Geria Nij
Ghagra
Ghatsila
Ghorasahan
Giridih
Gobindpur
Godda
Gomoh
Gua
Gumla
Gunjrauliya
Gānde
Hansdiha
Harinagar
Haripur
Harnātānr
Hazāribāg
Hisua
Husainabad
Islampur
Jagdispur
Jahanabad
Jamalpur
Jamshedpur
Jamtara
Japla
Jaridih
Jasidih
Jhajha
Jharia
Jhinkpāni
Kairābani
Karagola
Karmatam
Karon
Kathiār
Katras
Katuria
Kekpāra
Kendghata
Khairbani
Kharagdiha
Kharagpur
Kharsawan
Khunti
Kiul
Kodarma
Kokpāra Narsinghgarh
Kolebīra
Kowār
Kumrābād
Kundahit
Kursela
Kuyāli
Kālikāpur
Laheria Sarāi
Lalganj
Lauriya Nandangarh
Litipāra
Lohardaga
Luckeesarai
Lātehār
Madhubani
Madhupur
Maharajganj
Maheshmunda
Mahulia
Manihari
Manoharpur
Masānjor
Mohania
Mokāma
Murliganj
Mushābani
Mānushmuria
Nagar Untāri
Narainpur
Narkatiaganj
Nasriganj
Naugachhia
Netarhāt
Nirmali
Nirsa
Noamundi
Pachamba
Pakaur
Palāstha
Parasnāth
Pawapuri
Pokharia
Pornia
Pusa
Qasba
Rajgir
Rajmahal
Ramgarh
Ranchi
Raneswar
Raxaul
Revelganj
Rusera
Rājābhita
Rāribahāl
Sagauli
Sahibganj
Saraikela
Sarath
Shaikhpura
Sikandra
Silkāripāra
Silphuh
Simaltala
Simaria
Simdega
Sindri
Sirāmpur
Sonahula
Sonpur
Tajpur
Taraia
Tarapur
Tatanagar
Teghra
Tekari
Topchānchi
Tāratanr
Waris Aliganj
Unknown
Bhagalpur
Darbhanga
Kosi
Magadh
Munger
Patna
Purnia
Saran
Tirhut
source: Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names
source: Family History Library Catalog


the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Bihar is a state in East India. It is the 13th largest state in terms of geographical size of and 3rd largest by population and fastest growing state. It is bounded by Uttar Pradesh to its west, Nepal to the north, the northern part of West Bengal to the east, and by Jharkhand to the south. The Bihar plain is divided into two parts by the river Ganges which flows from west to east. Bihar has forest area of 6,764.14 km2, which is 7.2% of its geographical area. In 2000, southern Bihar was separated from Bihar to form the new state of Jharkhand. Close to 85% of the population lives in villages. Almost 58% of Biharis are below the age of 25, which is the highest proportion in India. In Bihar, there are many languages. However, Bhojpuri is the most popular language.

Bihar was a centre of power, learning and culture in ancient and classical India. From Magadha arose India's first and greatest empire, the Maurya empire, as well as one of the world's most widely adhered-to religions, Buddhism. Magadha empires, notably under the Maurya and Gupta dynasties, unified large parts of South Asia under a central rule. Its capital Patna, earlier known as Pataliputra, was an important centre of Indian civilisation. Close to Patna, Nalanda and Vikramshila were centres of learning which were established in the 5th and 8th century respectively in Bihar, and are counted as amongst the oldest international universities of the time.

Since the late 1970s, Bihar has lagged behind other Indian states in terms of its social and economic development. Economists and social scientists claimed that this is a direct result of the policies of the central government, such as the Freight equalization policy, its apathy towards Bihar,[1] lack of Bihari sub-nationalism (resulting in no spokesperson for the state),[2] and the Permanent Settlement of 1793 by the British East India Company.[2] The state government has however made significant strides in developing the state. The improved governance has led to an economic revival in the state through increased investment in infrastructure, better health care facilities, greater emphasis on education, and a diminution in crime and corruption.

Contents

History

the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Ancient

Different regions of Bihar like Magadha, Mithila, Anga, Vaishali are mentioned in different religious texts and epics of ancient India. The power centre of ancient Bihar was around the region of South-West Bihar called Magadha, which remained the centre of power, learning, and culture in India for 1000 years.

The Haryanka dynasty founded in 684 BC ruled Magadha from the city of Rajgriha (modern Rajgir), two well known kings were Bimbisara and his son Ajatashatru who imprisoned his own father to get the throne. Ajatashatru founded the city of Pataliputra which later became the capital of Magadha. He declared war and conquered Vajji another powerful Mahajanapada north of Ganges with their capital at Vaishali. Vaishali was ruled by Licchvi who had a republic form of government where king was elected from the number of rajas. Haryanka Dynasty was followed by Shishunaga dynasty and later Nanda Dynasty replaced them with a vast empire from Bengal to Punjab.

The Nanda Empire was replaced by Maurya Empire. India's first empire, the Maurya empire as well as Buddhism arose from the region that now makes up modern Bihar. The Mauryan empire, which originated from Magadha in 325 BC, was started by Chandragupta Maurya who was born in Magadha, and had its capital at Pataliputra (modern Patna). The Mauryan Emperor, Ashoka, who was born in Pataliputra (Patna) is believed to be one of the greatest rulers in the history of India and the world.

Bihar remained an important place of culture and education during the next 1000 years. The Gupta Empire that originated from Magadha in 240 AD is referred as the Golden Age of India in science, mathematics, astronomy, commerce, religion and Indian philosophy. Bihar and Bengal was invaded by Rajendra Chola I of the Chola dynasty in the 11th century.


Medieval

The Buddhism in Magadha declined completely with the invasion of Muhammad Bin Bakhtiar Khilji, during which many of the viharas and the famed universities of Nalanda and Vikramshila were destroyed, and thousands of Buddhist monks were massacred during 12th century. D. N. Jha suggests, instead, that these incidents were the result of Buddhist-Brahmin skirmishes in a fight for supremacy. In 1540 the great Pathan of Bihar, Sher Shah Suri, from Sasaram, Bihar, took the reins of North-India. He was the first person who defeated the Mughals and army of Humayun, making Delhi as his capital. The Mughals had to leave India during his rule.

The tenth and the last Guru of Sikhism, Guru Gobind Singh was born in Patna. After the downfall of Mughal Empire, Bihar came under Nawabs of Bengal.

Colonial Era

After the Battle of Buxar (1764), the British East India Company obtained the diwani rights (rights to administer, and collect revenue or tax) for Bihar, Bengal and Odisha. The rich resources of fertile land, water and skilled labour had attracted the foreign imperialists, particularly the Dutch and British, in the 18th century. A number of Agrio based industries had been started in Bihar by the foreign entrepreneurs. Bihar remained a part of the Bengal Presidency of British India until 1912, when the province of Bihar and Orissa was carved out as a separate province. Since 2010, Bihar has celebrated its birthday as Bihar Diwas on 22 March.[3] In 1935, certain portions of Bihar were reorganised into the separate province of Orissa. According to Bihar Vibhuti Vol 111 published by Bihar govt. archives, South Asian History & culture published from London & Vision & Mission Manohar Delhi Veteran Freedom Fighter Dr. Maghfoor Ahmad Ajazi vehemently opposed Two Nation theory of Jinnah & creation of Pakistan. All India Jamhur Muslim League was formed parallel to Muslim league to oppose Jinnah, with Raja of Mahmoodabad as president & Dr. Ajazi as general secretary.


Pre and post Independence

Farmers in Champaran had revolted against indigo cultivation in 1914 (at Pipra) and 1916 (Turkaulia). In April 1917, Mahatma Gandhi visited Champaran, where Raj Kumar Shukla had drawn his attention to the exploitation of the peasants by European indigo planters. The Champaran Satyagraha that followed received support from many Bihari nationalists, such as Rajendra Prasad and Anugrah Narayan Sinha.

In the northern and central regions of Bihar, the Kisan Sabha (peasant movement) was an important consequence of the Freedom Movement. It began in 1929 under the leadership of Swami Sahajanand Saraswati who formed the Bihar Provincial Kisan Sabha (BPKS), to mobilize peasant grievances against the zamindari attacks on their occupancy rights. The movement intensified and spread from Bihar across the rest of India, culminating in the formation of the All India Kisan Sabha (AIKS) at the Lucknow session of the Indian National Congress in April 1936, where Saraswati was elected as its first president. This movement aimed at overthrowing the feudal zamindari system instituted by the British. It was led by Saraswati and his followers Pandit Yamuna Karjee, Rahul Sankrityayan, Pandit Karyanand Sharma, Baba Nagarjun and others. Pandit Yamuna Karjee along with Rahul Sankritayan and a few others started publishing a Hindi weekly Hunkar from Bihar, in 1940. Hunkar later became the mouthpiece of the peasant movement and the agrarian movement in Bihar and was instrumental in spreading it.

Bihar played a very important and vital role in the Independence of India. Much revolutionary activity took place in Bihar during the movement for Indian independence, and Champaran, especially, figured largely in that movement. MK Gandhi and many other leaders of the independence movement held marches and rallies in Bihar. Babu Kunwar Singh of Jagdishpur is the most famous independence activist of Bihar.

Bihari migrant workers have faced violence and prejudice in many parts of India, such as Maharashtra, Punjab and Assam after independence.

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This page uses content from the English Wikipedia. The original content was at Bihar. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with WeRelate, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License.
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