The township was originally known as Wheatfield when it was surveyed in 1808. The name was later changed to Hammondsburgh after Jason Hammond, who settled there in 1810. The name was changed to Bath when it fully separated from Richfield Township in 1818.
In 1998, Bath Township formed a Joint Economic Development District (JEDD) with Akron and Fairlawn. The JEDD area has approximately 300 acres (1.2 km²) and is in the business district at the southern end of the township.
Bath Township's land has been in the following counties: