Baranya County lies in southern Hungary, on the border with Croatia. The River Drava forms part of its southern border, and the River Danube its eastern border. It shares borders with the Hungarian counties Somogy, Tolna and Bács-Kiskun. The capital of Baranya county is Pécs.
The area has been inhabited since ancient times. Before the Hungarian tribes conquered the area, it was inhabited by Slavs and Avars. Stephen I founded an episcopal seat here.
In 1526 the county was occupied by Ottomans and was freed in 1689. Its medieval borders remained unchanged until 1919. According to the peace treaty of Trianon the southern part of the county (1163 km²) reverted to Slavic rule (present-day Croatia). The re-organizing of the counties (1950) brought only minor changes (town of Szigetvár got there).
Baranya has the largest number of minorities in Hungary (more than twice the country average), providing home to 34% of the German minority and 32% of the Southern Slav minorities in Hungary.