Arthur is a village in Douglas County and Moultrie County in Illinois; Arthur's primary street, Vine Street, is the county line. The population was 2,288 at the 2010 census. The Arthur area is home to the largest and oldest Amish community in Illinois, which was founded in the 1860s.
In 1877, the population was approximately 300 persons, with plans being made to incorporate as a village. This occurred in April in the County Court House in Moultrie County.
The first village election was held on June 12, 1877 and C.G. McComb, Matt Hunsaker, W.H. Reeder, H.C. Jones, J.W. Sears, and Nick Thompson were elected trustees, and J.W. Barrum, clerk.
The original town was laid out on the farms of M.H. Warren on the Moultrie side, and the Pendleton Murphy farm on the Douglas County side. Early additions to the town included those by Murphy, Reeves, Hunsaker, Gibson, Warren, Reeder, followed by Kensington, Campbell, Boyd, Bennet, Fitzjarrald, and more.
An F2 tornado struck two miles south of Cadwell and moved northeast four miles south of Arthur on April 7, 1998. It lifted near Bourbon. Twenty homes, six barns, and other buildings were either damaged or destroyed. One mobile home was blown off its foundation. There were eight injuries.
In July 2012, Arthur's longtime school district consolidated with the much smaller school district in nearby Lovington, Illinois. High school students from both towns attend school in Arthur, while grade schools are maintained in both towns. The two schools have shared a football team for many years.