Place:Ardèche, France

Watchers
NameArdèche
Alt namesArdechesource: Webster's Geographical Dictionary (1984)
Ardèchesource: Getty Vocabulary Program
TypeDépartement
Coordinates44.667°N 4.333°E
Located inFrance
Also located inRhône-Alpes, France    
Contained Places
Commune
Annonay
Aubenas
Bogy
Bourg-Saint-Andéol
Chomérac
Cruas
Les Ollières-sur-Eyrieux
Privas
Saint-Cierge-la-Serre
Saint-Cyr
Saint-Marcel-lès-Annonay
Saint-Sauveur-de-Montagut
Talencieux
Vallon-Pont-d'Arc
General region
Vivarais
Inhabited place
Alba
Andance
Antraigues
Burzet
Béage
Champagne
Charmes-sur-Rhône
Cheylard
Cornas
Coucouron
Guilherand
Joyeuse
Labastide-de-Virac
Labégude
Lalevade-d'Ardèche
Lalouvesc
Lamastre
Lanarce
Largentière
Le Lac-d'Issarlès
Les Tessiers
Loubaresse
Mayres
Montpezat-sous-Bauzon
Mézilhac
Orgnac-l'Aven
Pouzin
Rochemaure
Ruoms
Saint Agrève
Saint Etienne-de-Lugdarès
Saint Félicien
Saint Laurent-les-Bains
Saint Martin-de-Valamas
Saint Péray
Saint-Martin-d'Ardèche
Saint-Michel-de-Boulogne
Saint-Pierreville
Saint-Victor
Sarras
Sauvas
Serrières
Soyons
Teil
Thines
Thueyts
Tournon
Valgorge
Vals-les-Bains
Vans
Vernoux-en-Vivarais
Villeneuve-de-Berg
Viviers
Voulte-sur-Rhône
Unknown
Accons
Ailhon
Aizac
Ajoux
Alboussière
Alissas
Arcens
Ardoix
Arlebosc
Arras-sur-Rhône
Asperjoc
Astet
Aubignas
Auriolles
Baix
Balazuc
Banne
Beauchastel
Beaulieu
Beaumont
Berrias
Berzème
Bessas
Bidon
Boffres
Borne
Borée
Bosas
Boucieu-le-Roi
Boulieu-lès-Annonay
Brahic
Brossainc
Casteljau
Cellier-du-Luc
Chalençon
Chambonas
Champis
Chandolas
Chanéac
Charnas
Chassagnes
Chassiers
Chauzon
Chazeaux
Cheminas
Chirols
Châteaubourg
Châteauneuf-de-Vernoux
Colombier-le-Cardinal
Colombier-le-Jeune
Colombier-le-Vieux
Comps
Coux
Creysseilles
Cros-de-Géorand
Darbres
Davezieux
Desaignes
Devesset
Dompnac
Dornas
Eclassan
Empurany
Etables
Fabras
Faugères
Flaviac
Fons
Freyssenet
Félines
Genestelle
Gilhac-et-Bruzac
Gilhoc
Gluiras
Glun
Gourdon
Gras
Gravières
Grospierres
Issamoulenc
Issanlas
Jaujac
Jaunac
Joannas
Juvinas
La Rochette
La Souche
La Voulte-sur-Rhône
Labastide-de-Juvinas
Labatie-d'Andaure
Labeaume
Lablachère
Laboule
Lachamp-Raphaël
Lachapelle-Graillouse
Lachapelle-sous-Aubenas
Lachapelle-sous-Chanéac
Lafarre
Lafigère
Lagorce
Lalavade-d'Ardèche
Lanas
Larnas
Laurac-en-Vivarais
Laval-d'Aurelle
Laveyrune
Lavillatte
Lavilledieu
Laviolle
Le Béage
Le Cheylard
Le Crestet
Le Plagnal
Le Pouzat
Le Pouzin
Le Roux
Le Teil-d'Ardèche
Lemps
Lentillères
Les Assions
Les Vans
Lespéron
Limony
Lussas
Lyas
Malarce
Malbosc
Marcols-les-Eaux
Mariac
Mars
Mauves
Mazan-l'Abbaye
Mercuer
Meyras
Meysse
Mirabel
Monestier
Montréal
Montselgues
Naves
Nonières
Nozières
Ozon
Pailharès
Payzac
Peaugres
Peyraud
Planzolles
Plats
Pont-de-Labeaume
Pourchères
Prades
Pradons
Pranles
Prunet
Préaux
Péreyres
Quintenas
Ribes
Rochecolombe
Rochepaule
Rocher
Rochessauve
Rocles
Roiffieux
Rompon
Rosières
Sablières
Sagnes-et-Goudoulet
Saint-Alban-d'Ay
Saint-Alban-en-Montagne
Saint-Alban-sous-Sampzon
Saint-André-Lachamp
Saint-André-de-Cruzières
Saint-André-en-Vivarais
Saint-Andéol-de-Berg
Saint-Andéol-de-Fourchades
Saint-Andéol-de-Vals
Saint-Apollinaire-de-Rias
Saint-Barthélemy-Le-Meil
Saint-Barthélemy-le-Pin
Saint-Barthélemy-le-Plain
Saint-Basile
Saint-Bauzile
Saint-Christol
Saint-Cierge-sous-le-Cheylard
Saint-Cirgues-de-Prades
Saint-Cirgues-en-Montagne
Saint-Clair
Saint-Clément
Saint-Didier-sous-Aubenas
Saint-Désirat
Saint-Etienne-de-Boulogne
Saint-Etienne-de-Fontbellon
Saint-Etienne-de-Serres
Saint-Etienne-de-Valoux
Saint-Fortunat-sur-Eyrieux
Saint-Genest-Lachamp
Saint-Genest-de-Beauzon
Saint-Georges-les-Bains
Saint-Germain
Saint-Gineis-en-Coiron
Saint-Jacques-d'Atticieux
Saint-Jean-Chambre
Saint-Jean-Roure
Saint-Jean-de-Muzols
Saint-Jean-de-Pourcharesse
Saint-Jean-le-Centenier
Saint-Jeure-d'Andaure
Saint-Jeure-d'Ay
Saint-Laurent-du-Pape
Saint-Martial
Saint-Maurice-d'Ibié
Saint-Mélany
Saint-Pierre-la-Roche
Saint-Pierre-sur-Doux
Saint-Pons
Saint-Privat
Saint-Sauveur-de-Cruzières
Saint-Symphorien-de-Mahun
Saint-Symphorien-sous-Chomérac
Saint-Thomé
Salavas
Salelles
Sampzon
Sanilhac
Satillieu
Savas
Sceautres
Silhac
St-Joseph-des-Bancs
St-Julien-Boutières
St-Julien-Labrousse
St-Julien-Vocance
St-Julien-du-Gua
St-Julien-du-Serre
St-Julien-en-St-Alban
St-Julien-le-Roux
St-Just
St-Lager-Bressac
St-Laurent-sous-Coiron
St-Marcel-d'Ardèche
St-Martin-l'Inférieur
St-Martin-le-Supérieur
St-Maurice-d'Ardèche
St-Maurice-en-Chalençon
St-Michel-d'Aurance
St-Michel-de-Chabrillanoux
St-Montant
St-Paul-le-Jeune
St-Pierre-de-Colombier
St-Pierre-le-Déchausselat
St-Priest
St-Prix
St-Remèze
St-Romain-d'Ay
St-Romain-de-Lerps
St-Sernin
St-Sylvestre
St-Vincent-de-Barrès
St-Vincent-de-Durfort
Ste-Eulalie
Ste-Marguerite-la-Figère
Sécheras
Tauriers
Thorrenc
Toulaud
Ucel
Usclades-et-Rieutord
Uzer
Vagnas
Valvignières
Vanosc
Vaudevant
Vernon
Vernosc-les-Annonay
Vesseaux
Veyras
Villevocance
Vinezac
Vinzieux
Vion
Vocance
Vogué
source: Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names
source: Family History Library Catalog


the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Ardèche (; Occitan and Arpitan: Ardecha) is a department in south-central France named after the Ardèche River.

Contents

History

the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Prehistoric and ancient history

The area has been inhabited by humans at least since the Upper Paleolithic, as attested by the famous cave paintings at Chauvet Pont d'Arc. The plateau of the Ardeche River has extensive standing stones (dolmens and menhirs), erected thousands of years ago. The river is the largest natural canyon in Europe and the caves that dot the cliffs (which go as high as 300 m (1,000 feet)) are known for signs of prehistoric inhabitants (arrowheads and flint knives are often found).

The Vivarais, as the Ardèche is still called, takes its name and coat-of-arms from Viviers, which was the capital of the Gaulish tribe of Helvii, part of Gallia Narbonensis, after the destruction of their previous capital at Alba-la-Romaine. Saint Andéol, a disciple of St Polycarp, is supposed to have evangelized the Vivarais during the reign of Emperor Septimius Severus, and was supposedly martyred in 208. (Legend tells of Andéol's burial by Amycia Eucheria Tullia.) Auxonius, in 430, transferred the see to Viviers as a result of the problems suffered at its previous site in Alba Augusta.

Medieval history

The area of the Vivarais suffered greatly in the 9th century with raids from Magyar and Saracen slavers operating from the coast of Provence resulting in an overall depopulation of the region.

In the early 10th century, economic recovery saw the building of many Romanesque churches in the region including Ailhon, Mercuer, St Julien du Serre, Balazuc, Niègles and Rochecolombe. The medieval county of Viviers or Vivarais at this time was administratively a part of the Kingdom of Arles, formed in 933 with the fusion by Rudolph II of Burgundy of the realms of Provence and Burgundy and bequeathed by its last monarch Rudolph III of Burgundy to the Holy Roman Emperor Conrad II in 1032. Locally throughout this period, the Church played an important role. John II (Giovanni of Siena), Cardinal and Bishop of Viviers (1073–95), accompanied Pope Urban II to the Council of Clermont. It was later held in fief by the Counts of Toulouse, who lost it to the French crown in 1229. In 1284, with the Cistercian Abbey of Marzan, Philip IV established Villeneuve de Berg, and by the treaty of 10 July 1305 Philip IV of France obliged the bishops of Vivarais to admit the sovereignty of the Kings of France over all their temporal domain. The realm was largely ignored by the Emperors and was finally granted to France as part of the domain of the Dauphin, the future Charles VII of Valois in 1308. During this period, the Maillard family, as Counts of Tournon, were influential in the Ardèche. During the Hundred Years War, the area maintained its loyalty to the French crown, despite frequent attacks from the west.

Early modern history

As a result of the reformation of John Calvin in Geneva, the Vivarais Ardèche was one of the areas which strongly embraced Protestantism partly as a result of the missionary activity of 1534 by Jacques Valery. During the following Wars of Religion (1562–1598), the Ardèche was considered a strategically important location between Protestant Geneva, Lyon and Catholic Languedoc. The region had prospered with the introduction of tobacco growing from America, and the agrarian experiments of Olivier de Serres, father of modern French agriculture. The influence of Protestant Lyon, and the growth of the silk industry, thanks to the planting of mulberry trees, had given the burghers of the Vivarais towns a certain independence of thinking, and with the support of the powerful Protestant Huguenots, the Comte de Crussol and Olivier de Serres the Vivarais became a Protestant stronghold. As a result, it suffered many attacks and eight pitched battles between 1562 and 1595. In 1598, the Edict of Nantes put an end to these struggles. At that time, the Vivarais had over 75 Protestant churches and five fortified strongholds with permanent garrisons. However, the problems of the area were not over. In 1629, Paule de Chambaud, daughter of the Huguenot lord of Privas, chose instead to marry a Catholic, the Vicomte de l'Estrange, who supported the persecution of Protestants by Cardinal Richelieu. Privas, with a majority of the population Protestant, refused to submit, and as a centre of the revolt of the Benjamin de Rohan, duc de Soubise, was burned to the ground by the forces of Louis XIII, sent to support the Vicomte de l'Estrange. As a result, one-fifth of the Protestant population of the Vivarais emigrated.

The Revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, which finally outlawed Protestantism, resulted in the peasant family of Marie and Pierre Durand leading a revolt against royal authority. This led to the Camisard revolt of the Ardèche prophets. Louis XIV responded by dispatching Dragoons, who brutalised the population by "dragonnades", destroying a number of communities. The brutality of those years was enormous and peace was only restored in 1715. As a result of brutality on both sides, a further 50,000 Archèche Protestants left France, many fleeing to Switzerland, whilst others were forced into abjuration (conversion).

In the following century, despite the growth of the community of Annonay, an increasing polarisation between the upper nobility families auch as Rohan Soubise, and Vogue, Count of Aubenas, possessing huge financial fortunes, and the lesser nobility, the village clergy and the bourgeoisie of the Vivarais paralleled developments elsewhere in France. Despite this, the sons of a local Annonay paper-maker, Joseph and Jacques Etienne Montgolfier ascended in the first hot air balloon over the town on 4 June 1783. The firm of Canson Mongolfier continues making paper to this day and on the anniversary every year on the first weekend in June a large hot air balloon gathering celebrates the event of the first journey. At the 200th anniversary in 1983, some 50 hot air balloons took part with the first historic flight reenacted with people dressed in period costume.

Later modern history

During the French Revolution, in 1789, with the Declaration of Human Rights, Ardèche Protestants were at last recognised as citizens in their own right, free at last to practise their faith. However, Catholicism continued to grow and by the early 19th century, the Ardèche included only 34,000 Protestants out of a population of 290,000. Named after the river of the same name, the Ardèche was one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on 4 March 1790. The support of Count François Antoine de Boissy d'Anglas representing the Third Estate of the Vivarais in the States General, the freeing of the serfs and the support of the lesser clergy of the church ensured that the Ardèchois had supported the early revolution, but they withdrew support when things became more radical. During the Reign of Terror, in 1794, a guilotine was kept busy with the execution of the former moderate supporters of the revolution at Privas. Under the Directory, bands of Chouans took to the Cevennes to escape and support former emigrés.

With the Naploeonic period, the Ardèche entered a period of increasingly prosperous inconspicuousness. After a period of eclipse, Viviers was re-established in 1822 as the site of the see of the bishops of Ardèche, where it remains to this day.

Throughout the 19th century, a modest economic growth took place. The population grew from 273,000 in 1793 to 388,500 in 1861. The silk worm industry boomed until 1855, when disease affected the worms and competition with China undermined the industry's profitability. Mining at Privas saw the exploitation of local iron ore, which was quickly depleted. As a result, six blast furnaces were established, but were only moderately profitable, the last closing at Pouzain in 1929.

The scientific pioneer Marc Seguin, whose inventions played a key role in the development of early locomotives, was born in the department. However, Seguin located his business upstream near Lyon, and industrial development in the Ardèche remained relatively small scale. No large towns appeared in the department during the years of France's industrialisation, and its official population total of 388,500, reached in 1861, turned out to be a peak level which has not been matched subsequently.

Since the 1860s, the Ardèche economy has been split between the prosperous Rhône valley and the relatively poor and mountainous Haut Vivarais on the western side of the department. Sheep farming did not lead to the prosperity hoped for and wine growing, which was badly hit by the phylloxera crisis during the closing decades of the 19th century, has had to compete with other more established areas of France.

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