Adwick le Street became an urban district in 1915. It was previously a part of Doncaster Rural District. Historically, Adwick le Street was an ecclesiastical parish in the lower division of the wapentake of Strafforth and Tickhill and part of the Doncaster Registration District.
It is situated a few miles to the north west of the town of Doncaster. It has a population of 10,507.
Adwick-le-Street was an urban district of the West Riding of Yorkshire until 1974. Within the area of the former urban district lies the model village of Woodlands, built for Brodsworth Colliery. The old village is on the B1220, and meets the A638 to the south of the village at Adwick Grange, near the Highwayman pub.
To the west is the parish of Brodsworth. Highfields Country Park is adjacent to Brodsworth. The parish boundary with Brodsworth is mostly the Roman Ridge, except for a small section adjacnet to Pickburn, where it extends out to the A1(M) near the country park, and follows Long Lands Lane from the motorway bypass. To the north, the parish boundary follows the Old Ea Beck, broadly following the ECML railway. It then follows a drain under Adwick Lane, then Langthwaite Drain under the ECML, to the Highwayman roundabout; this roundabout is the southern edge of the (religious, no longer civil) parish of Adwick along the A638. The division between Woodlands and Adwick parish follows just east of the A638, to the west of the secondary school, meeting he A638 at the Redhouse junction.
The Woodlands parish from Hangthwaite meets the A638 further south near the former Long Edge Quarry, then follows Green Lane (B6422) until a point just east of Scawthorpe, where it meets the Roman Ridge. It follows the present Roman Ridge north and along the present-day parish boundary to the A1(M). It follows the A1(M) all the way to the Red House junction (38), including the Red House industrial park, whereas the present-day parish boundary (with Brodsworth) follows the Roman Ridge, north of Long Lands Lane past Markham Grange garden centre.
A main feature of the village is the Adwick railway station, on the electrified line, part of the East Coast Main Line, to Wakefield and Leeds. It is also the terminus for trains from Sheffield, via Doncaster. Just north of the station, is an east-west connecting freight-only line that originates just outside Hatfield and Stainforth railway station, passing the former Thorpe Marsh Power Station. The railway station originally closed in 1967, but re-opened in 1993.