Robert de Brus, Jure Uxoris Earl Of Carrick
Facts and Events
- the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia
Sir Robert VI de Brus (July 1243 – soon bef. 4 March 1304), 6th Lord of Annandale (dominus vallis Anandie), jure uxoris Earl of Carrick (1271–1292), Lord of Hartness, Writtle and Hatfield Broad Oak (Wretele et Hatfeud Regis), was a cross-border lord, and participant of the Second Barons' War, Welsh Wars, and First War of Scottish Independence.
The son and heir of Robert de Brus, 5th Lord of Annandale and Lady Isabella de Clare, daughter of the Earl of Gloucester and Hertford, his birth date is generally accepted.
Legend tells that the 27-year-old Robert de Brus was a handsome young man participating in the Ninth Crusade. When Adam de Kilconquhar, one of his companions-in-arms, fell in 1270, at Acre, Robert was obliged to travel to tell the sad news to Adam's widow Marjorie of Carrick. The story continues that Marjorie was so taken with the messenger that she had him held captive until he agreed to marry her, which he did in 1271. However, since the crusade landed in Acre on 9 May 1271, and only started to engage the Muslims in late June, the story and his participation in the Ninth Crusade are generally discounted.
What is recorded, is that in:
- 1264 He has to ransom his own father, after his capture, along with Henry III, Richard of Cornwall, and Edward I at the Battle of Lewes, Sussex.
- 1271 He marries, without Scottish Royal consent, Marjory, countess of Carrick. As a result she temporarily loses her castle and estates, regained on payment of a fine.
- 1274 Jul–Sep He is present, along with Alexander III of Scotland, his Queen Margaret, their children and 100 Scottish lords and knights at the Coronation and accompanying celebrations of Edward I, at the Palace of Westminster.
- 1278 He swears fealty to Edward I, on behalf of Alexander III at Westminster.
- Accompanies Alexander III to Tewkesbury
- 1281 He is part of the delegation to Guy of Dampierre, Count of Flanders, to arrange the marriage of the Lord Alexander.
- 1282 He participates and is paid for his services in Edward's Conquest of Wales.
- 1283 June, he is summoned by writ to Shrewsbury, for the trial of Dafydd ap Gruffydd.
- 1285 Jun 1 – Earl & Countess, at Turnberry, grant the men of Melrose abbey certain freedoms, according to English law.
- 1286 He is witness, along with his son Robert, to the grant of the church of Campbeltown to Paisley Abbey.
- 1290 He is party to the Treaty of Birgham.
- He supports his father's claim to the vacant throne of Scotland, left so on the death of Margaret I of Scotland in 1290. The initial civil proceedings, known as The Great Cause, awarded the Crown to his fathers 1st cousin once removed, and rival, John Balliol.
- 1291 He swears fealty to Edward I as overlord of Scotland.
- 1292 His wife Marjorie dies.
- November, his father, Robert de Brus, 5th Lord of Annandale – the unsuccessful claimant – resigns his Lordship of Annandale, and claim to the throne to him, allegedly to avoid having to swear fealty to John. In turn he passes his late wife's Earldom of Carrick, in fee, on to his son Robert.
- 1293 January 1 – His warrener at Gt. Baddow, a Richard, is caught poaching venison at Northle.
- 1293 He sets sail for Norway, for the marriage of his daughter Isabel to King Eric II of Norway, the father of the late Queen Margaret I of Scotland, son-in-law of King Alexander III, and a candidate of the Great Cause.
- 1294/5 He returns to England.
- 1295 His father dies.
- 6 Oct, swears fealty to Edward and is made Constable of Carlisle Castle.
- Refuses a summons to the Scottish host.
- Confirms, to Gisborough Priory, the churches of Annandale and Hart. Witnessed by Walter de Fauconberg and Marmaduke de Thweng.
- Exchanges common pasture, for land held by William of Carlisle at Kinmount.
- Exchanges land in Estfield, for a field adjacent to the prior of Hatfield Regis's manor at Brunesho End Broomshawbury.
- Grants Robert Taper, and his wife Millicent, a messuage in Hatfield Regis, and via a separate grant of arable land of meadow, in Hatfield Regis, for 16s annual rent.
- Grants John de Bledelowe, the former lands / tenement of Richard de Cumbes, in Hatfield Regis, for 1d annual rent.
- Alters the terms of a grant to Richard de Fanwreyte, of Folewelleshaleyerde, Montpeliers, Writtle, from services to an annual rent. Witnesses includes two of Roberts Cook's at Writtle.
- Alters the terms of a grant to Stephen the Tanner, of Folewelleshaleyerde, Montpeliers, Writtle, from services to an annual rent. Witnesses includes two of Roberts Cook's at Writtle.
- Alters the terms of a grant to Willam Mayhew, of the tenement Barrieland, Hatfield Regis, to an annual rent of 5s and some services.
- 1296 Jan, He is summoned to attend to the King Edward at Salisbury
- 28 April, he again swears fealty to Edward I and fights for Edward, at the Battle of Dunbar Castle.
- August, with his son Robert he renews the pledge of homage and fealty to Edward, at the 'victory parliament’ in Berwick.
- Edward I denies his claim to the throne and he retires to his estates in Essex.
- 29 August – At Berwick, agrees the dower lands of his widowed step mother, Christina.
- Annandale is re-gained.
- Marries an Eleanor.
- 7 Jan – Transfers a grant of land at Hatfield Regis, from Walter Arnby to his son William.
- 29 May – Grants a John Herolff a half virgate of land in Writtle.
- 1 February – Rents lands at Hatfield Regis, Essex to a John de Bledelowe, for 4s annual rent.
- 4 August – While resident at Writtle, he Rents lands at Hatfield Regis, Essex to a Nicholas de Barenton, for 21s annual rent.
- 1301 November 26 – Grants, Bunnys in Hatfield Broad Oak and Takeley, to an Edward Thurkyld.
- After 1301, Enfeoffments Writtle, in part, to a John de Lovetot and his wife Joan.
- 1304 Easter, dies on route to Annandale and is buried at Holm Cultram Abbey, Cumberland.
- Following his death his Eleanor remarries, before 8 February 1306 (as his 1st wife) Richard Waleys, Lord Waleys, and they had issue. She died shortly before 8 September 1331.
Shortly after the Battle of Stirling Bridge (1297), Annandale was laid waste as retaliation to younger Bruce's actions. Yet, when Edward returned to England after his victory at the Battle of Falkirk, which one source accords to Robert turning the Scottish flank,but is almost certainly a calumny since other sources place him in Ayr in open rebellion at the time nor did he make peace with Edward until five years later. Annandale and Carrick were excepted from the lordships and lands which he assigned to his followers, the father having not opposed Edward and the son being treated as a waverer whose allegiance might still be retained.
Robert at that time was old and ill, and there are reports that he wished his son to seek peace with Edward. If not his son's actions could jeopardise his own income, which was primarily derived from his holdings south of the border (est. £340 vs £150). The elder Bruce would have seen that, if the rebellion failed and his son was against Edward, the son would lose everything, titles, lands, and probably his life.
It was not until 1302 that Robert's son submitted to Edward I. The younger Robert had sided with the Scots since the capture and exile of Balliol. There are many reasons which may have prompted his return to Edward, not the least of which was that the Bruce family may have found it loathsome to continue sacrificing his followers, family and inheritance for King John. There were rumours that John would return with a French army and regain the Scottish throne. Soulis supported his return as did many other nobles, but this would lead to the Bruces losing any chance of gaining the throne themselves. He died in Palestine and was buried at Holm Cultram Abbey.
- Robert de Brus, jure uxoris Earl of Carrick, in Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. (Online: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc.).
- Sir Robert le Brus, 1st Lord Brus, in Lundy, Darryl. The Peerage: A genealogical survey of the peerage of Britain as well as the royal families of Europe.
- ROBERT [VI] de Brus, son of ROBERT [V] de Brus Lord of Annandale & his first wife Isabel de Clare (Jul 1243-shortly before 4 Apr 1304, bur Abbey of Holm Cultram), in Cawley, Charles. Medieval Lands: A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families.