Person:Maria Carolina of Austria (1)

Erzherzogin Maria Karolina von Österreich
b.13 Aug 1752 Vienna, Wien, Austria
Facts and Events
Name Erzherzogin Maria Karolina von Österreich
Gender Female
Birth[1][2][3] 13 Aug 1752 Vienna, Wien, Austria
Death[1][2][3] 8 Sep 1814 Vienna, Wien, Austria


the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Maria Carolina of Austria (; ; 13 August 1752 – 8 September 1814) was Queen of Naples and Sicily as the wife of King Ferdinand IV & III. As de facto ruler of her husband's kingdoms, Maria Carolina oversaw the promulgation of many reforms, including the revocation of the ban on Freemasonry, the enlargement of the navy under her favourite, John Acton, 6th Baronet, and the expulsion of Spanish influence. She was a proponent of enlightened absolutism until the advent of the French Revolution, when, in order to prevent its ideas gaining currency, she made Naples a police state.

Born an Austrian archduchess, the thirteenth child of Empress Maria Theresa and Emperor Francis I, she married Ferdinand as part of an Austrian alliance with Spain, where Ferdinand's father was King. Following the birth of a male heir in 1775, Maria Carolina was admitted to the Privy Council. Thereafter, she dominated it until 1812, when she was sent back to Vienna. Like her mother, Maria Carolina took pains to make politically advantageous marriages for her children. A patron, Maria Carolina promoted Naples as a centre of the arts, patronising painters Jacob Philipp Hackert and Angelica Kauffman and academics Gaetano Filangieri, Domenico Cirillo and Giuseppe Maria Galanti. Maria Carolina, abhorred by her sister Marie Antoinette's treatment by the French, allied Naples with Britain and Austria during the Napoleonic and French Revolutionary Wars. As a result of a failed Neapolitan invasion of French-occupied Rome, she fled to Sicily with her husband in December 1798. One month later, the Parthenopean Republic was declared, which repudiated Bourbonic rule in Naples for six months. Deposed as Queen of Naples for a second time by French forces, in 1806, Maria Carolina died in Vienna in 1814, a year before her husband's restoration to Naples.

This page uses content from the English Wikipedia. The original content was at Maria Carolina of Austria. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with WeRelate, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License.
References
  1. 1.0 1.1 Maria Carolina of Austria, in Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. (Online: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc.).
  2. 2.0 2.1 Hamann, Brigitte, „Maria Karolina“, in Neue Deutsche Biographie. (Berlin: Duncker und Humblot, c1953-), 16 (1990), S. 201 f. .
  3. 3.0 3.1 Wurzbach, Constantin. Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich: enthaltend die Lebenskizzen der denkwürdigen Personen, welche 1750 bis 1850 im Kaiserstaate und in Kronländer gelebt haben. (Wien: K.K. Hof- und Staatsdruckerei, 1856-1891), 6:398-399.