John Hardison Redd
b.27 Dec 1799 Sneads Ferry, Onslow, North Carolina, United States
d.May 1858 Spanish Fork, Utah, Utah
m. 2 Mar 1826
Facts and Events
John Hardison Redd and Elizabeth Hancock
John Hardison Redd was born of goodly parents; namely, Whitaker Redd [Jr.] and Elizabeth Hardison. He was born December 27, 1799, at Stump Sound, Onslow County, North Carolina. Stump Sound was a small arm of the ocean reaching inland between the mainland and a row of sandy islands along the coast. Another account places the location of birth in or near Sneads Ferry, North Carolina.
Whitaker Redd [Sr.] held land in Onslow County. At his death he left Hall's point Plantation to his son, Whitaker [Jr.]. I haven't found out the exact size of it. Later it was divided into six parts, one part for each of Whitaker Jr.'s children Mary, John H., William, Catherine, Nancy, and Alexander. The deed book mentions several of these parts. It was on this plantation that John H. was probably born and raised - in Snead's Ferry, Onslow County, North Carolina. The family as a whole seemed to have been prosperous and well to do. William [Whitaker Jr.'s brother] gave his oldest son, Kincy, who had moved to New Hanover County, 520 acres and a Negro man slave. But at that they didn't have anything we'd call a luxury.
I can find no reference to Stump Sound in the atlas or on today's map. The name has likely disappeared, and most likely was merely an area along the shore. One account, in the Juarez Stake records, says that John's son, Lemuel, was born near the courthouse. The courthouse now is in Jacksonville, between 15 and 20 miles inland, but at one time the courthouse was located much closer to the shore, so close, in fact, that it was washed away by a tidal wave.
From Wheeler's History of North Carolina, Onslow County:
"Johnston, once its capitol, was located in the southern part of the county, where court was held; but in September 1752 a most terrific hurricane swept away the court house, clerks office and dwelling houses; the records were all destroyed and the town was abandoned." (It seems too, that many other things happened that make it difficult to find much record.)
Elizabeth died shortly thereafter, and both John and Mary were then cared for by the "mammy." But Mary was no longer lonely. She had a little brother, and I think she must have mothered him as no other baby was ever mothered by a sister. They were never separated long in their whole lives. From North Carolina they went to Tennessee, and from there to Utah. Both died in Spanish Fork.. A third mother came into the Redd home, and another sister was born April 30, 1804, when John was about five. The new sister had a mother, of course, so I don't think she "needed" John and Mary quite as much as they had needed each other. The two continued to be the best of "pals," despite the difference in their ages.
People living in a maritime locale become expert in boating, swimming, and fishing. Those early people undoubtedly ranged up and down the coast in boats and canoes. As long as I can remember there has been a tradition in the family that John Hardison Redd was a sea captain. When I was a child my father had John's sword and scabbard. I played with it many times; pulling the sword out and then putting it back in the scabbard. Aunt Ellen had his special colored glasses which he wore on the sea. They had hinged blue lenses which could be put in front of the eye or alongside the temple, as the need arose. Also, the bows could be lengthened or shortened. Finally, John D. Lee, who baptized John Redd into the church, confirms in his journal that John was a sea captain. So John Hardison Redd was a sea captain. That must have been before he was 39, at which age he left the coast and moved inland. If he were expert enough to become a captain or master of a vessel, he must have started young. He may have owned his own vessel and captained that; many did. He may even have served as an apprentice on a vessel. Serving as an apprentice was the usual way of getting an education in any trade or profession in that day, as there were no schools to do the job.
There are legends that he traded in the Barbados. The Barbados, owned by the British and located off the coast of South America a little north and east of Trinidad, seems to have been a halfway station between England and America. This was probably because of prevailing winds and ocean currents. Even when Lord Baltimore sent his first two ships to Maryland, they stopped at the Barbados on the way, which is far off the course. It seems to have been the usual practice of that day. If John Redd did trade in the Barbados, he was indeed an expert sailor.
To become a captain in that day, he must have come up through the ranks. He probably started as a tot to learn the simple things about sailing, and then went on to the more intricate tasks. We read very little about their activities, but we do know from Onslow Court minutes, which are found in the archives at Raleigh, North Carolina, that John's grandfather, Whitaker Redd, owned a canoe at the time of his death, because his son, William, bought it from his father's estate on April 27, 1789. William also bought a lot of fish. The inventory was dated January 23, 1789.
I can imagine John Hardison Redd as a mere tot going out with his father or other members of the family deep-sea fishing, or boating, or maybe swimming. Swimming was imperative as a prerequisite of boating. At times their lives depended upon their ability to swim and swim well. It would have been foolhardy to go to sea in a small boat or canoe and not be able to swim if it should become necessary.
We can also take it for granted that John Hardison Redd was well versed in the "art and mystery of a planter," as the records of his day called him a planter. He owned a plantation and he had to know how to run it. In those days things were as primitive as they were in the Middle Ages; there were few inventions, few labor saving devices, no machinery, no short cuts. Everything about the house or plantation had to be done the hard way -- by hand. Cleve Redd, Joe Frank's father, told me when I was in Sneads Ferry in 1918 that they had to grub up small pine trees all the time out of their gardens; otherwise, the gardens would go back to a heavy pine forest in a few years. They were always grubbing and clearing just to break even and keep what they had. They took me out to an old Redd cemetery, which was no longer in use; headboards were all rotted away and gone. I saw only one stone piece. On the way we went over a "corduroy" road made of logs six or seven feet long laid side by side across the road. It was bumpy.
They said: "This is a road that Sigley Redd made with his slave labor before the (Civil) War. It ran from his plantation up to his sawmill. See how he ditched it to keep it dry."
A ditch ran along just under the ends of the logs on one side of the road. The ditch, clogged now with vegetation, had seepage water in it; the water was probably always there on account of the wet climate there at sea level.
Sigley was John Hardison Redd's cousin, some fourteen years older. He was the son of William, who was the brother of Whitaker. Apparently, John H. Redd's relatives knew how to build and use saw mills, and he undoubtedly had the same "know how." He also had much more "know how" about farming and building, most of which he passed on to his son, Lemuel H.
John was also a much better writer than most of the others of his time, and he may have had some private tutoring. His sister, Mary, couldn't even sign her own name. It wasn't essential for a girl to write; her business was to weave and sew and cook and do the other items of housekeeping for the comfort and happiness of her husband and children. That was her business; if she were proficient in those duties, she was a pillar of society.
Early Manhood in North Carolina
On October 17, 1820, John Hardison Redd bought 50 acres of land for $10.00 from William Hancock (North Carolina deed book 17, page 115). How near his family lived to the Hancocks, we don't know, but this was his future wife's brother. John H. was nearly 21, and it was just over six years before he was to marry William's sister, Elizabeth.
This is the first transaction of his of which I have a record. His father was still alive at the time, and it is possible that he was still living at home -- when they weren't at sea -- helping his father farm, along with his two younger brothers, William W., 11, and Alexander, 9. When he bought this land he may have decided not to go to sea any more but to be a planter instead. We also read: "For several years while in North Carolina he was in the mercantile business, where he was admired and respected by his friends and associates."
He married Elizabeth Hancock March 2, 1826. She was born January 25, 1798, and was the only living daughter of Zebedee Hancock and his wife, Abigail Taylor. She had two brothers, William and Anson Hancock. I guess she had always had a Negro maid to wait on her, and just five months before John H. Redd bought the land from her brother, her father had willed her a Negro maid for her very own, forever. This maid was named Venus, and she stayed with Elizabeth all the rest of her life, so that Elizabeth always had someone to wait on her, just like a princess or a queen. At the time of her marriage, Elizabeth's mother was dead and she had a stepmother. In his will, Zebedee had left four Negroes to this stepmother as a loan, but at her death Elizabeth was to get one-third of them. One of the Negroes was named Chaney, and Elizabeth got that one. From then on she had two maids to wait on her and do her hard work. Still, there was plenty to do to keep Elizabeth busy, as there were no labor-saving devices, and all the bedding, clothing, weaving, sewing, cooking, knitting, and so on for the family had to be done by hand in the home. At least, she had time for as much of that as she wanted to do. But just because the hard, dirty work was done by a maid didn't mean that Elizabeth was ever idle. That was never thought of for a lady, or even for a princess. Life would have been very boring with nothing to do. We know little of her activities, but we can assume that they were confined to the home, just as were those of all women of her day.
John H. Redd began as early as most to take his place in the community where he lived. His sister, Mary, married John Holt in November of 1814, and of course she left home. At that time he had four little brothers and sisters: Nancy, William, Alexander, and Catherine. Catherine was at the time just a tiny baby.
John's uncle, William, was older than his father, and he was much in the public eye. He is mentioned many times in the court minutes as buyer, seller, juror, guardian, etc. Whitaker's name does not appear often. Perhaps he had a dislike of spending his time in court, or maybe he was at sea much of the time, fishing. At one time he was even fined for nonattendance. He had been appointed to act as juror and didn't show up. John H. seemed to take after his father in this. He came to court only when it was necessary. Maybe he, too, spent time with his father on the sea. But William seems to have always been there to be appointed on committees and so forth. Also, he seems to have had a lot more private personal business than Whitaker had.
Some of the activities of John Hardison Redd as I find them in the court minutes at Raleigh were: He witnessed the will of Jeptha or Jephehah Cary on May 17, 1835. (I think Jeptha Cary was a close relative of his sister, Mary, as her mother's maiden name was Cary.) He was appointed by his sister, Mary, and her husband, John Holt, to be their attorney October 17, 1829, when her father, Whitaker, died. (Mary and John were living at that time in Rutherford County, Tennessee -- Deed book #18, page 132. His duty was to sell the land and other property she was to get from her father's estate.) John H. Redd was also attorney for Anson Hancock, his brother-in-law, who then lived in Gadsden County, Florida. (In this case he sold, among other things, a Negro slave, Elias, to Richard Collins for $400 on May 2, 1832.) On November 25, 1830, he sold the land of his sister, Mary, who at that time lived in the state of Alabama. (It seems that Mary and John were having difficulty making up their minds about a new settling place.) John Redd was appointed on a commission to help divide the land of Alice Dulany, deceased, among her heirs. These heirs included Seth Ward and Benjamin Ward, heirs of Eli W. Ward.
John H. Redd and Elizabeth sold 75 and 50 acres, which she had received, from Zebedee Hancock to Daniel Harper for $250. One thing different about that transaction was that Elizabeth signed the deed. Few women of that day could sign their names. Despite the signature, Daniel Harper was a bit skeptical about the deed. He thought that maybe John H. was doing it all on his own account, without her free consent. According to law, no man could sell his wife's property without her free consent if she had received the property by inheritance or as a dower. Harper questioned the transaction in court. Elizabeth was too infirm to travel to the court, so the court commanded that two representatives go to her alone and apart from her husband and get her consent. They brought back to the court the following document:
In obedience to a commission to us directed from the county court of this county at the August term 1832, we have proceeded to take the private examination of Elizabeth Redd, wife of John H. Redd, at the home of said Redd respecting her signing a deed with her husband to Daniel Harper and upon her being examined separate and apart from her said husband and privately touching the execution thereof by her and there upon she acknowledged that she did execute the foregoing deed freely voluntarily and without the control or compulsion of her husband. Given under our hand and seal this August 12, 1832 -
/s/Edward Ward & D. W. Simmons
This Edward Ward must have been closely related to Elizabeth, as her grandmother was Sarah Ward, the mother of Zebedee Hancock, and Elizabeth had named her first baby Edward Ward Redd. It is possible he was named after this same Edward Ward.
I mentioned the first transaction with William Hancock. As years went on John H. Redd bought other property. He received 400 acres from his grandfather, John Hardison. I don't know the time. On November 25, 1830, he bought 300 acres from George Hazzard for $1,005 (Deed book #19, page 111). He bought 200 acres and 75 acres and 50 acres from Thomas Hazzard for $150 on August 11, 1833.
John H. Redd sold 200 acres for $100 on May 20, 1829. This was half the land that fell to John H. Redd from John Hardison by heirship (Deed book #21, page 394). He sold his own right in his father's land to John Wilkins for $110 on December 11, 1832. He sold 145 acres to Edward Ward for $14 in July of 1832.
The last sale by John H. Redd of which I have record in North Carolina was August 11, 1838. Grandfather was about two years old at the time, and they were getting ready to leave for Tennessee. At that time he sold a plantation of 300 acres called "The Bluff" and three other tracts of 200 and 75 and 50 acres, respectively. This was his sell out to go to Tennessee. He received $1650 for the lot from John Lloyd (Deed book #23, page 44).
By that time his sister, Mary, was back in Rutherford County, Tennessee, and that is where John headed.
Life in Tennessee
John Hardison Redd bought a plantation about 15 or 20 miles from Murphriesborough, Rutherford County, Tennessee. The deed is as follows (and see page 189):
I Sarah Beasley have this day bargained sold and do hereby transfer and convey to John H. Redd his heirs and assigns forever for the consideration of the sum of seven hundred and eighty dollars to me paid a tract of land in the state of Tennessee, Rutherford County and district No. 8 containing by estimation one hundred and ten acres be the same more or less and bounded as follows viz. laying on the headwaters of Stewart's Creek beginning at a stake in the branch on Thomas Wray's North Boundry thence West one hundred and twenty one poles to a stake then South twenty poles to a black ash on the East side of sugar knob thence West eighty eight and one third poles to a stake in Robert Layn's line; thence North with said line to a sasfras the said Layn's corner; thence East with said line to a black oak in John J. Beasley's South East corner at the branch; thence South with said branch to the beginning: To have and to hold the same with all the priviledges thereunto belonging unto the said John H. Redd his heirs and assigns forever; I do covenant with the said John H. Redd that I am Lawfully seized of the land have a good right to convey it and the same is unincumbered; I do further covenant and bind myself my heirs and representatives to warrant and forever defend the title to the said land and every part thereof to the said John H. Redd his heirs and assigns against the lawful claims of all persons whatever this December 5th A. D. 1838.
/s/Sarah Beasley (Seal)
Executed and delivered in our presence the day and date above written Test /s/John Holt /s/John Brockman
Personally appeared before me Robert S. Morris Clerk of the county court of said county John Holt and John Brockman subscribing witnesses to the within deed who being first sworn depose and say they are acquainted with the within named Sarah Beasley the bargainores and that she acknowledged the same in their presence to be her act and deed upon the day it bears date.
Witness my hand at office this 8th day of February 1841 Registered February 8th 1841 Robert S. Morris, Clerk
John H. Redd sold his land in Onslow County, North Carolina, August 11, 1838, and bought his first land in Rutherford County, Tennessee, December 5, 1838. After he sold his land in North Carolina, he completed his preparations for the move west. These preparations may have consisted of obtaining wagons, oxen, yokes, horses, saddles, harnesses, barrels for water, and perhaps a hundred other things I wouldn't know about. They would probably take all they had and maybe even procure more in preparation for the settling in process. They had five children, aged eight, six, four, two, and a tiny baby. According to the census of 1850, they also had at least four Negro children, maybe more. It's possible that they had started months or even years before to get ready for the move. They must have had a regular caravan going to Tennessee. I'm sure they took all they had -- cattle, chickens, teams, wagons, farming equipment, seeds, furniture, stock, slaves, clothing, and provisions for all of the family. If they wanted it for use in Tennessee, they had to take it with them; there were no stores or markets of any kind out in that far western frontier.
Despite the fact that they traveled by ox team and took all their possessions with them, they made pretty good time. If the road were straight, it would have been nearly 600 miles, but because it wound around quite a bit, it was probably many miles farther. Perhaps there was not much of a road at all. When Fern and I went down there in 1957, we made good time across the prairie, but from Kentucky across North Carolina the road was terribly crooked and slow traveling. I'll bet they had to chop a trail part of the way so they could get along. Little pines and other vegetation would be growing all the time, and it would have to be cleared away.
Once they arrived in Tennessee, it may have taken a bit of time to find a piece of land and arrange for its purchase. That would explain the four months, which elapsed between selling out in North Carolina and buying land in Tennessee.
John Hardison Redd also bought other tracts as follows:
Deed book Y, page 287 -- John Beasley to John H. Redd; 186 acres, 8th district, $904; November 8, 1839.
Deed book Y, page 403 -- John Ryan to John H. Redd, et al; Public School, 8th district; July 13, 1840. (Mr. John H. Redd was a commissioner, so he was eligible to buy land for the school.)
Trust Deed book 1, page 239 -- William Beach to John H. Redd; 55.5 acres, 8th district; May 10, 1845.
Deed book 2, page 82 -- William Beech to John H. Redd; No district listed (no price); January 4, 1845.
Deed book 4, page 449 -- A. U. Hicklin to John H. Redd; 30 acres, 8th district, $35; October 11, 1849.
He lived there for about 12 years and built a home and farmed the place. It was there in 1843 that something happened that changed their whole lives. We have never known much about the incident (at least, I hadn't), but not long ago I found a good account of it in the missionary journal of John D. Lee, who baptized John Redd and his family into the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. A copy of the journal is in the Huntington Library near Los Angeles, and John D. Lee's granddaughter, Mozelle Bickley, has the original. I consulted both. [Lila VanDenBerghe spoke with Ida Bickley, daughter-in-law to Moszelle, in 1998 who informed her that the diary in Moszell's possession consisting of 3 separte books have subsequently been turned over to the Church.]
The following are from entries made in 1843:
May 16 - We then returned in company with Mr. Nochols to fill an appointment at the house of Br. Pace's. But in consequence of the day being so rainy & disagreeable, but few persons turned out, however I preached to them. Among the number that composed the audience was 2 gentlemen who had rode 17 miles to hear a mormon preach (viz) Mr. John H. Redd and John Hoalts. After meeting Mr. Red bought some books of me & requested me to visit his neighborhood & lecture to them. Accordingly I sent an appointment by them for the Sunday.
May 20 - Now being left alone I determined to continue my labors to as small a compass as would enable me to do the cause justice. Casting myself upon the pure mercies of God I again pursued my way being conveyed over Stone's river on horseback. I felt much relieved & expressed my gratitude to my kind benefactors for the favor shown me. Directly after I crossed this stream Mr. John H. Redd rode up & kindly offered to carry my valise also to ride and tie with me. I cheerfully excepted his proposals & went to his home & spent the night.
May 21 - Monday morning after breakfast I walked over to Mr. Redd's in company with several others & before I left I exhorted them to Obedience to the Mandates of Heaven.
June 6 - I assisted to make a dam across a stream in order to prepare or collect sufficient quantity of water to baptise & at 2 oclock I baptised John Holt & Mary his wife. ("Sister Holt but a short time before was conveyed in a carriage to the water, her health being so much impaired as to prevent her from walking a few rods, was immediately relieved of her illness." Juanita Brooks in, John D. Lee, p. 52.) Returned to his house and confirmed & under same administration ordained him an Elder for thus I was commanded in a vision to do.- at the same time 3 more acknowledged the truth and offered themselves for baptism. I walked to Mr. Redd spent the evening reasoning with them.
June 7 - in the morning before I left them Mrs Redd gave me her hand as a token of her sincerity in the cause of truth, But was not prepared to be Immersed at that time.
June 14 - Went to Br Pace's took breakfast. Then baptised the following persons & confirmed them by the waterside Wilson D Pace & Harvey A Pace.
June 15 - Spent the night with Mr. Redd.
June 17 - At 8 a.m. we repaired to first conveniens & after Making such remarks as was necessary to preceed the ordinance of baptism I administered or Inducted the following persons into the Kingdom or church milotant on earth. John H. Redd a sea captain, Elizabeth Redd, Venice & Chinea 2 servants belonging to Mr J Redd.
The confirmation was attended at the house of Mr. Redd. A considerable portion of the spirit of the Most High was present & manifested itself on this occasion.
From thence we repaired to the Mormon stand where two short discourses were delivered, the first by Elder Holt which was interesting indeed although it was the first attempt made by him since his ordination or call to the ministry. I followed with such observations as was appropriate under existing circumstances. Closed the meeting promising to meet them at eleven the following morning.
June 19 - I spent the day at Br Redd's & posted up my journal. Br Redd & sister Holt between gave me a pair of drawers worth 50 [cents].
June 28 - Rode to Br Redds- took dinner
June 29 - I attended a reaping made by Br Redd & assisted him in cutting and saving his wheat.
July 17 - I remained at Br Redd's. Occupied the time in reading and writing also instructing such as came with inquiring minds.
Aug 6, Sunday - At 4 PM I called the members together. Partook of the Lord's supper and organized them into a branch and called it the Friendship branch of Rutherford- set apart & ordained the following officers- Bro John Holt an Elder- Wm Holt lesser priest - Bro John H. Redd Teacher & Clerk. I also taught them their several duties- The spirit of the Lord was with us & we had quite a pleasant time- From thence I walked to Mr Thomas in company with Bro Redd and Mr Hath-
The above was copied just as John D. Lee wrote it. You will notice that he referred to John Redd as Mr. Redd until he was baptized; then he was Brother Redd.
Young William Holt, John and Mary's son, had joined the church a year before. I have often wondered why John Hardison Redd and John Holt were so anxious to ride 17 miles in the rain to hear a Mormon preach. Now I know. This boy, William, no doubt was a valiant member and bore a strong testimony of the gospel to his family, and so his father and his uncle decided to look into it for themselves, and we know the result of his missionary efforts. We have always given John D. Lee all the credit for their conversion, but someone else, William Holt, may have done some of it. He at least filled them with curiosity so they went to hear about and investigate the gospel. John Hardison Redd was at that time a heavy user of tobacco. After his conversion he gave up his habit and did without it.
When the church moved west, John H. Redd of course considered going west, too. He made at least two preparatory trips, one to Nauvoo and the other to Winter and Summer Quarters. The trip to Nauvoo was made in the spring. We know this because John and Elizabeth each had their patriarchal blessings during the trip at the hands of Hyrum Smith on April 3, 1844. John and Mary Holt also had their blessings that same day. They likely all went to Nauvoo in one wagon. When I was in North Carolina in 1918 I couldn't find any vital statistics of the Redd family in the court records of Onslow County, so I asked some of the old timers there about church records, thinking that they might give me a bit of information.
"Where did they go to church?" I asked.
"Church! Church!" I was told. "None of the Redds ever went to church."
It is surprising how quickly they accepted the gospel of Jesus Christ when they had never been churchgoers before. It may have been with them like it was with some of our other relatives down there. When Fern and I were in Raleigh going through the court minutes of Onslow County in August of 1957, we found a statement in the minute book.. No date was attached, but minutes before and after were dated 1772, just when the tension was growing between England and her colonies. This seemed to be a good chance to "dig" the mother country, but the statement I refer to was concerned with religion. It read: "I, A.B., doe not believe there is any transubstantiation in the sacrament of the Lord's Supper or the elements of the bread and wine at or after the consecration thereof by any Person Whatsoever." The statement was signed by 17 persons who were members of the court, including Seth Ward and Richard Ward, who were justices at the time.
I also read at one time a statement in a history of North Carolina, which said that many of the inhabitants of North Carolina were "Nothingarians" as far as religion was concerned. Thus, in his childhood John Hardison Redd may not have been a churchgoer, but he was brought up to be an honest, upright man, and when he heard the truth he accepted it wholly and lived it.
Early in July of 1847 John H. Redd again visited the headquarters of the church, according to John D. Lee in his journal. I found a copy in the public library in Brigham City, Utah. The entries are from 1847 (pages 184 and 185):
July 1 -- About six P.M. Bro. John H. Redd and Isham Gilliam both Rutherford Co. Tenn. Men arrived in camp. (A note at the bottom of the page says: "John H. Redd an old sea captain formerly from South Carolina had protected Lee when the Mormon missionaries in Rutherford Co. Tenn. had been attacked by a mob. He later became converted and the prefix 'Bro.' indicates he was a Mormon at this time.")
July 4 -- Left Bro. John H. Redd considerably difficulted in his mind with reference to moving west. After meeting, Bro. Redd, I. Gilliam and Caroline and several others dined with J. D. Lee. (A note at the bottom of the page reads: "John H. Redd later emigrated and founded the Redd family of southeastern Utah.")
July 5 -- Clear, wind S.W. About 8 -- Gilliam, sister Caroline (Gilliam's wife) and J. H. Redd started for Tennessee, their Native land.
Deed book 2, page 262 -- John H. Redd to Mr. W. Haynes; 60 acres, 8th district, $300; September 4, 1845. (This was sold before he went to Winter Quarters.)
Deed book 3, page 387 -- John H. Redd to Louis Childs; 30 acres, 8th district, $250; October 9, 1847.
Deed book 4, page 322 -- John Redd to Nathan A. Boyd; 44 acres, 8th district, $87.50; August 31, 1849.
Deed book 4, page 455 -- John H. Redd to Mr. W. Haines;- 19 acres, 8th district, $87.50; August 31, 1849.
Deed book 4, page 321 -- John Redd to James Anderson; 150 acres, 8th district, $932; January 4, 1850. (This was just before he left Tennessee.)
The above is the last sale listed, and while the total does not add up to as many acres as John Redd had purchased earlier, one of the deed books has been missing since the Civil War, so more transactions may have been recorded there.
Miles P. Murphy, Clerk of Rutherford County, Tennessee, returned a list of taxable property in district 8 for the year 1849, stating:
John H. Redd -- 175 acres valued at $1250.00 tax 1.44; 4 slaves valued at 1600.00 tax 1.84; other property at 915.00 tax 1.04; polls 1 tax .15; state tax 4.47 and state and county tax 7.45.
Being that he paid taxes on only four slaves would indicate that he had already freed some of them. I guess the freeing of most of the slaves devolved on his wife, Elizabeth, because all six who came to Utah with the Redds belonged to Elizabeth, not to John. He had apparently also disposed of some real property by the time the above taxes were assessed.
The Redds were at last ready to make the trip west. The Paces were neighbors there in Tennessee, and they came to Utah together. James Pace was the captain of the company with which the Redds traveled, but Ann Mariah and Ann Elizabeth Redd, John's daughters, didn't travel in the same company as the Pace boys, their future husbands. The two Pace boys did not cross the plains with their parents; they went south with the Mormon Battalion.
They Go West
James Pace was captain over the fourth company to cross the plains in 1850. Under him were Richard Sessions, captain of the first fifty wagons, and John Hardison Redd was in this first fifty. The second fifty were under captain David Bennett. The Church Emigration Record of 1850 says that Captain Pace's company was organized early in June, and the company, with one hundred wagons, was in the vicinity of Council Grove on June 7th, according to a report published in the "Frontier Guardian" of that date.
On June 28th they were at a point about 50 miles west of Fort Kearney. There the company met a band of Latter-day Saint missionaries traveling eastward. There had been some sickness in the camp, and most of the companies had lost some of their number with the cholera. John Hardison Redd and his son, Lemuel, both contracted the disease, but they were both fortunate enough to recover.
The Church Emigration Record says that "the actual date of the arrival of Captain Pace's company in Salt Lake City has not been found, but estimating from data for other companies on the road, it is thought that Captain Pace's company arrived about September 20, 1850."
John Hardison Redd kept a daily journal of their travels. He kept it in a little notebook he had made himself out of long sheets of paper, which he folded and sewed together with a sort of twine, probably homemade, along the fold. In the years since then the outside sheets have been lost, so the beginning and the end of the record is gone, and we don't know exactly when they left or when they arrived. However, we do have some interesting details of the trip as he told them. At that time, the saints were starting their journeys from St. Joseph, Missouri. Family members have reported this, and it is likely that the Redds started from that place. John H. Redd's account is strictly impersonal; he doesn't mention one of his own family at any point. It is merely a "minute" of their travels, but it does give us a clear picture of traveling conditions at that time, of the weather, and of obstacles they encountered while crossing.
(I read this journal to Dr. Mason Redd, of the University of Utah, and he made some significant comments about it. He said we could call it a "Seaman's Log" or a "Captain's Prairie Schooner Log." John H. Redd used navy terms, such as "the weather was squally," a typical seaman's expression. He also often gave the direction of the wind, a fact of not much interest to land people but very important on the sea if they were to know how to adjust their sails.)
The Daily Journal
Tuesday morning, June 18th. Fine weather with the wind still to the south. We are encamped on the west side of the Weeping Water and capt. Bennett with the second 50 encamped on the opposite bank. We have accts of one death more amongst them, viz, Perry Kees. Their health seems a little improving this morning. We are still blessed with tolerable health in our camp.
Wednesday morning, June 19th. We had quite a rain last night and this morning it looks quite rainy. We are encamped on Salt Creek. Capt. Bennett's company passed us this morning in travelling condition under animating hopes of the cholera subsiding amongst them.
Thursday morning, June 20th. A prospect of good weather this morning. Capt. Bennett's company is still in advance of us about three miles and this is according to the wish of Capt. Pace as he wishes to strictly attend both companies. We fell in with two emigrating wagons yesterday who wish to be admitted into our camp, and they had the appearance of friendly civil men, who seemed willing to do their part in herding or guarding. Capt. Sessions proposed to the camps that if it was consistent with their wishes that he would have no objection and I believe it met the approbation of the camps so they were admitted in. Their names were as follows, viz = Syrus Collins who represented six persons, one wagon and five horses and the other by the name of I. W. Sands who represented 2 persons, 1 wagon and three horses.
Friday morning, June 21st. Fine weather this morning and our camps in tolerable health and condition. We passed Capt. Bennett's company yesterday about 1 o'clock. We suppose them at this time to be in our rear about 5 mi.
Saturday morning, June 22nd. Fine weather and tolerable health in our camps except Brother William Middleton who is sick this morning. We are camped near the Oak Grove and suppose Capt. Bennett to be still in our rear about 5 mi.
Sunday morning, June the 23rd. Quite cloudy this morning and likely for rain. We had a little rain last evening about the time we came into the bottom. We are camped near the lone cottonwood in the Platt Bottom and in sight of Capt. Evanses company who is in advance of us. Capt Bennett's company is still in the rear. Our camps are still blessed with tolerable health.
Monday morning, June 24th. We had it quite showery yesterday and very warm, consequently our road was very heavy as we were amongst sloughs. We have nothing of interest.
Tuesday morning, June 25th. We are camped on the south bank of the Platt River where we have plenty of wood and water. We anticipate to rest today and do some washing and wait for the arrival of Capt Bennett's company. We still have it warm and showery. Our camps still blessed with tolerable health.
Wednesday morning, June 26th. We had quite a rain last night. We have the wind to the north west this morning and a prospect of better weather. Capt. Bennett's camps (the 2nd 50) arrived yesterday and are encamped near us. All seem to be in tolerable spirits. The camps were called together this morning to establish rules and regulations for safety, progress and welfare of the camps. Capt. Pace and Capt. Sessions very appropriately addressed the camps and it seemed to meet with the good feelings and unanimously agreed to said rules and regulations. I have this morning read a correct statement of the deaths which have occured in Capt. Bennet's company which I will herein insert, viz, Luther Warner who died the 13th of June, Margaret Daney wife of Charles R. Daney June 14th, Harriet Dilley wife of D. B. Dilley June 14th, Ambrose Nichols June 14th, John Smith June 16th, Amanda Herrick June 16th, and Perry Kier June 17th. All supposed to die of cholera and east of the Weeping Water. Capt. Bennett's company have lost two horses supposed to be stolen by Indians. We have sent a letter back this morning to Kanesville addressed to Elder O. Hide.
Thursday morning, June 27th. We are still on the Platt Bottom. A prospect of fine weather this morning with a light breeze of wind to the north. Our camps are at this time enjoying tolerable health.
Friday morning, June the 28th. We had a little rain last night but a prospect of good weather this morning. We have tolerable health with the exception of Sister Oliver who is quite sick at this time.
Saturday morning, June the 29th. It looks quite squally this morning after a very heavy rain last night. We passed Capt. Evans company yesterday. They have lost some three or four of their number with cholera. They passed us last night and are in advance of us a 1/2 mile encamped. We met the mail from Salt Lake Valley yesterday about 10 o'clock. Supposed to be about 60 miles below Fort Carney. Capt. Bennett is still in our rear about 15 miles and news has come in this morning that they have lost 4 more of their number with cholera. Our two emigrating wagons (Mr. Collins and Mrs. Sands) left us this morning by common consent as we expected this day to lay by and they wished to make better progress in travelling.
Sunday morning, June 30th. We have prospects of good weather at this time though we had quite a storm of wind and rain last night. We lay be yesterday in hopes that the 2nd 50 would come up but they have not, as yet. We still have some complaints of sickness in our camps.
Monday morning, July 1st. Quite cool this morning with the wind to northwest. We had very heavy mud yesterday through the willows, sloughs, and swamps but we are safe over this morning. We still have some complaints of sickness in our camps. Capt. Pace has returned back this morning to visit his 2nd 50 (Capt. Bennett's company).
Tuesday morning, July 2nd. Fine weather this morning. We are encamped 10 miles east of Fort Carney. Capt. Pace returned into camp last night with intelligence that Capt. Bennett's company was moving on cheerfully about 12 miles in the rear with no other misfortune than the breaking of two axletrees. We had the misfortune to lose one of our number yesterday morning. A young girl about 3 years of age, the daughter of brother Henry Wilcox, name Elmira Charlotte.
Wednesday morning, July 3rd. Fine weather this morning. We camped about 3 miles west of Fort Carney where we buried Brother Henry Wilcox who died yesterday. Brother Wilcox was about 37 years of age supposed to die of cholera. There was a meeting called this morning by Capt. Pace and Capt. Sessions as it had been suggested that we should travel in smaller companies to promote the health and welfare of the companies. To this they agreed admitting it should be the unanimous wish of the camps or any number of tens so that they may travel in safety but not that any ten should be broken, but on taking the vote we found but very few in favor of dividing as they thought it could not benefit the camps in the least and no one ten unanimous. Therefore it was agreed to and decided that there should be no division but before the camp was ready to move in order John Cazier, Capt. of the 2nd ten, drove out and was followed by 2 wagons out of his own ten represented by Breed Sierls and two more out of the first ten (Capt. John Session's camp 10), one represented by Peter Wimmer and the other by Andrew Goodwin and was heard to exclaim 'We are for Salt Lake Valley' and drove on independent and contrary to rules, order or authority. We have wrote and sent on our first letter to the Salt Lake Valley addressed to president Brigham Young bearing date the 2nd of July 1850. Brother William Middleton was appointed Capt. over the third ten in the place of brother Henry Wilcox.
Thursday morning, July 4th. Fine weather but quite warm. There is some complaint of sickness in our camps this morning.
Friday morning, July 5th. Good weather and consequently we have better roads. Our camps seem a little better in health this morning for which we feel very thankful to our Heavenly Father for his mercies.
Saturday morning, the 6th. Fine weather, there seems to be some complaint. Brother Edward E. Wilcox is very sick this morning.
Sunday morning, July the 7th. Fine weather this morning with the wind to the south. We are encamped on the bank of the Platt. We have had the misfortune to loose another of our number with cholera. Bro. Edward E. Wilcox died yesterday and we have buried him at this place some fifty or sixty miles east of the south fork of the Platt. The name through mistake on his headboard is marked Edward H. instead of Edward E. Brother Breed Searls who went off with John Cazier has returned with his two wagons and states that he had no intention of leaving or forsaking the camp. As such they have been received into their place.
Monday morning, July 8th. A little cloudy and cool and fine weather for traveling. We lay by yesterday in hopes that Capt Bennett's company would come up but they have not as yet arrived. We still have some complaints of sickness in our camp.
Tuesday morning, July the 9th. We have good weather this morning though we had quite a rain last evening. There is still some complaints amongst our people and mostly bowel (trouble) complaints.
Wednesday morning, July 10th. Fine weather this morning with the wind to the east. We had quite a wind from the north last evening and but little rain. It is quite cool this morning and fine weather for traveling. There remains some complaints.
Thursday morning, July 11th. We had a storm of wind and rain last night from various points. Commencing at the north the wind is to the south west and a little likely for rain this morning. We passed the fork of the south and west prongs of the Platt yesterday. We seem through the blessings of Divine providence to meet with no material misfortune and our health a little improving for which we feel thankful to our Father in Heaven.
Friday morning, July 12th. We have it quite foggy and a little misty this morning. We are camped at or near the lower crossing of the south fork of the Platt. The health of our camps seems a little improving.
Saturday morning, July 13th. Fine pleasant weather this morning for traveling and we have had good roads for several days except a little sand yesterday. The health is still better and our condition first rate with the exception of some lame cattle.
Sunday morning, July the 14th. Quite cool and cloudy this morning and the health of our camps very much improving. Capt. Bennett's company is still in our rear about five or six miles. The government train passed us this morning and we are encamped about 25 miles below the upper crossing of the south fork of the Platt.
Monday morning, July 15th. Cool and pleasant weather this morning and our camps in tolerable health and condition. We lay by yesterday being the sabath and in hopes of the arrival of Capt. Bennett's company. But they were laying by at the same time. We learn that they have lost one more of their number.
Tuesday morning, July 16th. Beautiful weather this morning and our camps enjoying tolerable health except a child of sister Catherine Webbs who is quite sick at this time. We are encamped 7 miles below where we anticipate the south fork of the Platt. Capt. Bennett's camp is still in our rear.
Wednesday morning, July 17th. This is a beautiful morning with the wind to the east. We are this morning through the blessings of Divine Providence all safe on the north bank of the Platt. We had quite a pleasant time for crossing yesterday. The government train also got safe over last evening and are encamped near us. Capt. Bennett's with the 2nd 50 also drove up last evening and are ready this morning for crossing. Sister Webb lost her little (girl) last night. She died with the canker and whooping cough, and is buried at this place. Her name is Phoebe Arabella Webb. She was about 3 years old.
Thursday morning, July 18th. We are this morning in Ash Hollow. Fine weather but very warm. We have nothing of interest more than our camps are through the blessings of Heaven enjoying tolerable health. We have received some intelligence from Capt. Bennett's camps by Capt. Pace who continued at the river yesterday morning to see Capt. Bennett. They were in good condition and crossing.
Friday morning, July 19th. The weather still continues good. We have had some very heavy sand since we crossed the river. Our camps are enjoying tolerable health this morning through the mercies of God. There was 3 persons baptized by brother William Midleton, viz. sister Catherine Webb, for her health, sister Martha Wilcox for her health and remission of sins and sister Webb's daughter Lydia for remission of sins.
Saturday morning, July 20th. Somewhat cool and cloudy this morning after some little thunder and lightning last night. We are this morning a little in advance of the government train and Capt. Evans company. Our camps are enjoying tolerable health and we are blessed with little or no misfortunes. There was a meeting called yesterday at noon to see who wished to divide and upon what principles as there seemed to be some 2 or 3 of our number who wished to travel faster but on an investigation there were so few found that was willing to divide that a division could not be affected. Capt. Sessions spoke very lengthy and very much to the purpose of evil consequences that might result from dividing spirits and those inclined to lead off also from excessive driving of lame cattle.
Sunday morning, July 21st. We are encamped on the south bank of the west fork of the Platt opposite a pine grove on our left. The government train and Capt. Evans company passed us last evening. Elder Hide passed us yesterday about 10 o'clock on his way to the Great Salt Lake Valley. We had a fine rain last evening but it is quite clear and pleasant this morning.
Monday morning, the 22nd. We are still encamped at the same place but mustering up this morning for a few days travel. We lay by yesterday for the purpose of resting our teams and to do some washing. We have fine pleasant weather this morning and our company enjoying good health for which we feel thankful to our Heavenly Father for his blessings.
Tuesday morning, July the 23rd. Fine weather this morning and our camp's in tolerable condition for traveling and enjoying a reasonable share of health through the blessings of divine Providence.
Wednesday morning, July the 24th. Fine pleasant weather this morning with the wind to the north. We are encamped on the south bank of the Platt about five miles east of the chimney rock and about 75 miles east of fort Laramie. We have received intelligence from Capt. Bennett's company by Samuel Johnston. He states that they are still in good condition and are traveling on. He also states that they have lost in all 14 of their number and most of cholera.
Thursday morning, July 25th. We are still encamped at the same place. We lay by yesterday it being the 24th of July to celebrate the day in commemoration of the entering of the pioneers that day three years ago into the valley of the great Salt Lake. Our opportunities of celebrating the day was very limited on this almost barren prairie but we rested our teams as we thought it a righteous act and was well entertained in the evening by an interesting discourse both from Capt. Pace and Capt. Sessions, admonishing the brethern to faithfulness in the discharge of their several duties. The brethren all seemed to meet and part with good feelings. We have fine weather but warm in the afternoon. We are enjoying good health through the blessings of Divine Providence.
Friday morning, July 26th. We are encamped this morning about 5 miles west of the Chimney Rock. We still have fine pleasant weather and our camp's in tolerable health and condition.
Saturday morning, July the 27th. We are encamped this morning at Scott's Hills or the trading post where we leave the river for about 25 miles travel. We had it quite squally last evening but very little rain. It is very cloudy this morning and likely for rain. Our health continues tolerable good.
Sunday morning, July 28th. We are again encamped on the Platt Bottom. We had it rainy the most of the day yesterday and quite cool and rainy this Morning. We are about 40 miles below fort Laramie.
Monday morning, July the 29th. We had a little rain yesterday but quite cool and pleasant this morning. We lay by yesterday it being the Sabath to rest our cattle. Capt. Evans' company is camped near us on horse creek. Our camps are enjoying a reasonable portion of health through the mercies of God.
Tuesday morning, July the 30th. We are encamped this morning about 3 miles below a trading post and about 23 miles below fort Laramie. We had considerable hail yesterday but beautiful weather this morning. Capt. Evenses camp is a little in advance of us and Capt. Bennett's company still in our rear. We have tolerable health in our camps this morning.
Wednesday morning, July 31st. We are encamped this morning 10 miles below fort Laramie on a beautiful bottom. The weather continues good. We had a birth in our camps last night. Sister Elizabeth Ann Rabel (wife of Henry Rabel) was delivered of a fine daughter and is doing well this morning. We have many Indians and Indian traders around us.
Thursday morning, August the 1st. We are camped this morning near fort Laramie all safe over the Laramie fork and have only lost up to this time out of our camps 4 persons as we have mentioned and three head of cattle. We have fine weather and good health in our camps for which we feel thankful to the giver and preserved of the same.
Friday morning, the 2nd of August. We are encamped on the south bank of the west fork of the Platt above fort Laramie. We have fine weather with the wind to the north. There is but very little complaint in our camps this morning.
Saturday morning, August the 3rd. We are encamped on Dead Timber Creek. Capt. Roundy's company is camped near us. He entered the Black Hills yesterday. We have fine weather and our camp's in tolrable health through the tender mercies of God.
Sunday morning, August the 4th. We are encamped this morning about one mile above Heber Spring. We had it very sandy, rocky and hilly the most of the way yesterday. We still have fine weather.
Monday morning, August the 5th. We still are encamped at the same place as we lay by yesterday. We had a little rain yesterday but fine weather this morning. We are still blessed with tolrable health.
Tuesday morning, August the 6th. We are encamped this morning on Small Creek where we have good water. We still have good weather and in tolerable condition.
Wednesday morning, August the 7th. We are encamped this morning on the La Boute, where we have plenty of creek water. We have had it very rough and rocky the most of the way through the Black Hills. We have nothing of importance this morning.
Thursday morning, August the 8th. We are still encamped on the bank of the La Boute as we lay by yesterday to rest our teams and fit up our wagons. We have some little complaint of sickness in our camps this morning. We still have good weather.
Friday morning, August the 9th. We are still encamped in the Black Hills supposed to be about 25 miles east of Deer Creek. Our camps seem a little improved in health this morning. Brother Midletons division. . .
Saturday morning, August the 10th. We are encamped on the Fauche Boise River 9 miles East of Deer Creek. Our camp is in tolerable health this morning and we still have fine weather.
Sunday morning, August the 11th. We are encamped this morning on the bank of the north fork of the Platt near where we descended out of the Black Hills. We had considerable hail yesterday. Our camp is in tolrable health except the whooping cough amongst the children. We have fine weather.
Monday morning, August the 12th. We are encamped this morning on the south bank of the Platt 2 miles west of Deer Creek. I have nothing of importance.
Tuesday morning, August the 13th. We are yet at the same place as we lay by yesterday and had a little rain. We still have not much of interest. Br. Wm. Middleton has lost two of his cattle at this place.
Wednesday morning, August the 14th. We are still here at the same place. Brother R. Cobby has lost one of his cattle. Capt. Pace went to visit Capt. Bennett's company who are encamped on Deer Creek. He finds them all well and in traveling condition.
Thursday morning, August the 15th. We are encamped on the south bank of Platt 3 1/2 miles west of crooked Muddy Creek. We have not much of interest more than our camps are still enjoying good health through the tender mercies of God. We have found the road much better than we have anticipated.
Friday morning, August the 16th. We are still encamped at the same place as we lay by yesterday. We have nothing this morning. We have fine weather and good health.
Saturday morning, August the 17th. We are yet here but we expect to leave this morning. Brother Middleton has lost two cattle here and Brother Beck one. Capt. Bennett's company passed us yesterday and are encamped about four miles above. We still have fine weather and our company enjoying good health.
Sunday morning, August the 18th. We are encamped on the bank of the Platt near the upper ford and ferry. Capt. Bennett's company crossed last evening and are encamped on the opposite bank. Our camps are in tolerable health and conditon and ready this morning for crossing. We had a meeting last night to give some instructions and to settle some little controversies between Capt. Pace and Capt. Sessions as there had been some little misunderstanding between them a few days previous. After some reasoning on both sides I thought the matter seemed settled satisfactoral on both sides. We met the express from the valley yesterday about 10 o'clock 5 miles below this place. It is quite cloudy and likely for rain.
Monday morning, August the 19th. We are safe over the Platt and encamped on the river about 2 miles above the ferry where we have but little feed for our cattle and have a severe storm of cold wind and rain ever since last evening and still continues. We have lost in all up to this time 14 head of cattle, Br. James Pace 2, Br. Wm Middleton 7, Br. H. Oliver 1, Br. I. H. Tager 1, Br. R. Cobby 1, Sister Martha Wilcox, Br. John Haws 1.
This is the last entry, but it gives a bit about how they fared on the way across the plains. There is an entry for every day. You will notice that he writes in the morning, probably because it would be late in the evening before he could get at it, then it would be too dark. In his party there would have been himself, his wife, six children ranging in age from eight to nineteen years, and six colored servants ranging in age from fourteen to forty years. That would make 14 people, and they would have had to carry all their furniture, provisions, bedding, clothing, etc. John H. Redd and family had moved before, and they knew there were no stores nor markets out in the West, and if they wanted anything they would have to bring it with them. So they did.
(In regard to this, I remember when we moved to Canada, father had been up there and met a family he had known before, John Adams from Cedar City. Sister Adams told him: "Brother Redd, bring all you've got; don't leave anything. Even bring your swill bucket.")
In the New West
We don't know how long the Redds stayed in Salt Lake City when they arrived in Utah, but I don't imagine it was for long, and I imagine they were tired of camping. By winter they were in Spanish Fork area. They must have been anxious to get settled after that long, long trek.
Elisha Warner's History of Spanish Fork says (page 31): "During the winter of 1850 John Holt, John H. Redd and William Pace and two other men named Patrick and Glenn settled about a mile above the present site of Spanish Fork . . . . Mr. Redd was the owner of a number of Negro slaves which he used in his farming operation." Milton R. Hunter writes: "In April 1849 thirty-three families arrived at the Provo River and established Fort Utah. (The education of the children was not neglected. Mary Ann Turner, soon after the completion of Fort Utah, daughter of Chauncy Turner, taught school in one of the little log houses in 1849. History of Provo, by J. Marinus Jensen.) In the spring of 1850 they decided to vacate Fort Utah and build a city two miles up the river on higher ground. This settlement was to be called Provo. Provo City was incorporated 6 Feb. 1851." Apparently, Spanish Fork and Provo were settled at the same time -- a pair of twin cities.
In "First Families of Utah," by Burns V. Miller, the census of Utah County taken between September 20 and December 31, 1850, listed:
John H. Redd 51 M Venis 40 F Black Elizabeth Redd 52 F Chancey 38 F Black Ann M. Redd 19 F Luke 19 M Yellow Ann E. Redd 18 F Marinda 18 F Yellow Mary C. Redd 15 F Anna 14 F Yellow Lemuel H. Redd 14 M Sam 17 M Yellow John H. Redd 13 M Benjamin Redd 8 M
The six individuals in the second column were servants of J. H. Redd. They had been freed but had followed the family to Utah. The six did not ever belong to John Hardison Redd. They had belonged to his wife, Elizabeth. Her father, Zebedee Hancock, had given the two older women to his daughter, and each of them had two children, the younger ones listed. At least two more servants came out later. Those who came, came of their own free will and choice. Aunt Luella said they begged to come so they could take care of Elizabeth, which had been their lifelong job. They had no other concern in life and no place to go, so they wished to stay with her. Because they had never known any other home or family, they were permitted to stay with their "own family," as it were. Elizabeth likely felt the same about them; they were a part of her and of her life. She had never known any life without the help of her servants, and so they were permitted to come and be with her.
I guess it was the right thing to do. All things turned out well with them, and their lives were happier being together. None of them had to learn to adjust to new conditions and environment, at least as far as family surroundings were concerned. Without question, though, they found things in Utah very primitive, much more so than they had experienced even in the frontier of Tennessee.
And I can imagine that in Spanish Fork they camped for months while they found a place and materials to build a house. The house was built of squared logs, which were brought down from the mountain and cut into a square shape with an axe. It certainly was about the same as most log houses, one or two front rooms and a lean-to on the back. It had an attic with a stairway going up from the outside. This stairway was against the house and was narrow and steep, somewhere between a modern stairway and a ladder. I imagine the attic was low. An outside stairway might have been convenient and practical in the South, but in the West where there was snow it would be very upsetting at times.
John H. Redd was very lucky to arrive in the valley with his whole family intact. Many were not so fortunate. They saw graves scattered all along the way, hundreds of them. Even so, he couldn't keep his family for long. I guess they started to build their house and to make a good home as soon as they arrived at Spanish Fork. I have a little account book of John H. Redd's, and early in January of 1851 he listed items he was using in the construction of his sawmill at Spanish Fork.
In the History of Spanish Fork it says they organized a ward there on March 10, 1851, with Stephen Markham as president and John Holt and John H. Redd as his counselors. William Pace was bishop, and John W. Berry and Lorin Roundy were his counselors. They had this type of double organization in many early wards. Some say that is the proper way. The president looks after the spiritual affairs of the members, and the bishop has the care of the temporal matters. In such an arrangement the bishop needs only the Aaronic Priesthood. They soon combined the two functions, and the bishop, holding the higher priesthood, can manage both.
Albert King Thurber, who at one time was in the bishopric there, writes:"In the fall of 1851 I moved to Spanish Fork which was called a desert. There were four families some three miles above: John H. Redd, William Pace, John Holt and Charles Furguson. The first Militia meeting being near J. H. Redd's."
That same spring, 1851, they planted crops and reaped a harvest. All seemed to be going well. Mary Catherine took sick and asked for her brother, Lemuel, the next younger than she. He must have been her special pal. But Lemuel was out in the field plowing, and father thought he'd better finish the day there; she could see him in the evening when he came in. She continued to call and to coax for him, but to no avail. She died before the evening, May 5, 1851, so he didn't get to talk to her or to see her alive. Father and son both felt the heartache. Her death was the first loss in the family, but it would not be the last. John's sons, Lemuel H., John H., and Benjamin J., were baptized June 3, 1852. Lemuel H. and John H. were ordained priests that same day. When the boys were baptized, so were their father, their mother, their sisters (Ann Mariah and Ann Elizabeth), and their servant (Venus). These latter were baptized for remission of sins. That same day John Hardison Redd was ordained a High Priest. I wonder if the baptism was in preparation for that high ordination.
The next change in the family came on August 22, 1852, when Daughter Ann Mariah Redd married Wilson Daniel Pace. It was the first marriage performed in Spanish Fork. The ceremony was performed by his father, William Pace.
Then, the following year, son John Holt Redd was thrown from a horse and died from the injury on November 25, 1853, a Thursday morning. Mother Elizabeth was heartbroken. It had been only a little over two years since she had lost her youngest daughter, and now one of her sons was gone. She couldn't eat. She went to bed and it is said she turned yellow. She died on Sunday morning, November 28, 1853. They always said she died of a broken heart. No sooner had the family experienced one death, funeral, and burial than they had to suffer through another, this time the wife and mother.
John H. Redd was like thousands of others when bereft of his loved ones. There was nothing to do but to carry on and finish his life, regardless of his sorrow.
When they settled in Spanish Fork, as I said before, it was at a place a little above the present site and was called Palmyra. Of course, they had trouble with the Indians, and all men had to be on hand for defense. John H. Redd was justice of the peace there on November 24, 1854, and he was listed as owning one shotgun or rifle, one pistol, and 50 pounds of gunpowder. I think he was very active in civic and church affairs, doing many things of which we have no record.
From the records of Spanish Fork City, May 7, 1855, we read:
A true list of votes taken at the above-mentioned place with the respective names of voters for mayor, aldermen and councillors for said city.
1 Mathew Caldwell 13 John L. Butler 2 Joseph B. Hawks 14 John H. Redd 3 George W. Sevy 15 John W. Snell 4 H. A. Pace 16 Daniel R. Mott 5 H. B. N. Jolley 17 John McKinley 6 Philo Allen I8 William F. Pace 7 Zebedee Coltrin 19 George McKinley 8 John W. Mott 20 Lemuel H. Redd 9 Wilson D. Pace 21 Joshua Hawks 10 Cyrus Snell 22 John Walton 11 William Pace 23 George D. Snell 12 Orrawell Simons
Votes for Mayor
Mathew Caldwell 17 John McKinley 6
Votes for Aldermen
John H. Redd 23 Cyrus Snell 23 Henry B. N. Jolley 23 Orrawell Simons 23
William Pace 23 Philo Allen 23 John L. Butler 23 Wilson D. Pace 23 Joseph B. Hawks 23 Harvey A. Pace 23 Zebedee Coltrin 23 George W. Sevy 23 John W. Mott 23
We the undersigned clerks and judges do certify that this is a true statement of the votes taken at the above place given under our hand and seal-- John H. Redd, Zebedee Coltrin, William Pace, Orrawell Simons, John L. Butler.
Ann Elizabeth Redd married Harvey Alexander Pace on August 28, 1853, and Lemuel H. Redd married Keziah Jane Butler, the daughter of John Lowe Butler and Caroline Farozine Skeen, on January 2, 1856. That left John Hardison Redd at home with only his youngest child, Benjamin, age fourteen. The family had been in Utah only about five and a half years.
In February of 1856 the Spanish Fork Ward record reports: "John H. Redd was appointed a mission to Las Vegas but did not go, but fitted out his son Lemuel H. who with his wife went in contemplation of having his father follow in the fall."
However, the mission was discontinued and so John Redd did not go to Las Vegas, and Lemuel returned to Spanish Fork. John wrote a letter to his son while Lemuel was in Las Vegas:
Spanish Fork City Utah County and Utah Territory August the 1st 1856
Dear son and daughter--
With pleasure and interest I embrace the opportunity of advising you with a few lines. My reason for not writing sooner I was waiting for you to write that I might know what to communicate. I received your letter of the ninth of June last Sunday night the contents of which has been noticed with no small interest. I am happy to hear that you are both well but truly sorry to learn that you are not satisfied. I do not wish you to remain there any longer than you can help if you are not satisfied. I have done the very best in my power to take care of what you left behind. I have let nothing go except your table and two pigs. I let sister Butler have one and I give one pig and one bushel of wheat for harvesting your faul wheat. The man who took the job had rather a hard bargain. It took him about five days faithful work with a hook to save it amongst the sunflowers. The grasshoppers injured your wheat some but the sunflowers have been most destructive. They have destroyed much of my faul wheat. I have had to hire all the time. We are just through with our faul wheat and oats and will have to commence on our spring wheat about Monday. Our crops are quite light and it is thought that bread stuff will be remarkably scarce, it has been one of the most trying times that this people ever had to pass through and we fear that it will be no better the ensuing year if the people do not begin to save in time. The word salvation are taught from every stand which fully means a saving principle. Without that there is no salvation, remember my dear children and be wise and equanomical as your father has been before you and you may rely my son and daughter with confidence that your father will take the best care in his power for your temporal and eternal welfare--
I wish to hear from you often that I may know how to manage your concerns and keep things in readiness for your return which I hope will be before very long unless you become better satisfied, For I do not wish you to stay there against your will. If you have a wish to return you had better come by the first safe opportunity as I am making arrangements to start in the faul. I should like to have you here to give some instructions in regard to what I leave behind. You can arrange your business there to the best advantage to remain until I get there. Get liberty from the authorities of that place to come and do not come until you know that you are safe in traveling. I should like to know about what time you expect to start that I may know what time to look for you. I expect to leave my houses and land and a part of my stock as the range there are not very good. The tobacco worm in places has been very destructive to potato crops. They have destroyed nearly all of the Pace's potatoes and nearly ruined yours. We wormed them over three or four times. They are not so bad on our black land. We have had a pretty hard trial to make what we have made. Stock, grasshoppers and worms has given us some trouble. I have not much news at this time. There has been very few changes except what are common, we had a frost about the 15th of July which injured our vines very much, we have had it very windy all through the spring and summer but it is very dry and hot at this time. There has been two marriages since you left. John W. Berry is married to Emily Davis and myself to Miss Mary Lewis of Salt Lake City a fine looking girl of about 16 years of age. This leaves us all well at present truly hoping it to find you both in the enjoyment of life, health and prosperity. Miss Charity wishes to be remembered to you both as she had not the opportunity of writing in the letter sent by her people. She is well and doing well and we hope a very fair prospect of her still doing better. We all have a desire to see you, both white and black and our ardent desires are for your temporal and eternal welfare and return. So ever remaining your affectionate Father people and friends.
/s/John H. Redd and family and people This sounds as if the blacks are living near. In the South they always had separate little houses out at the back for the slaves and later for the black helpers, and I suppose it was still the same in Utah.
John H. Redd married Mary Lewis in the summer of 1856. She was born November 22, 1839, in Alsmorgan, Wales, the daughter of John A. Lewis and Ann John. She was 16, nearly 17, and he was 57, nearly 58. Their baby, Mary Ann Redd, was born August 28, 1857, at five minutes before 11:00 p.m.
I visited Salt Lake City in April 1918, especially to see Uncle Lem and tell him what I had learned in the South. He could tell me nothing more, but he advised me to go to Spanish Fork and talk to Louise Pace, the wife of Franklin Pace. She was a foster sister of Mary Lewis, so I went. I had a long talk with her, and she said that Mary was an "old man's darling." She had no work to do that she didn't want to do. Those Negro mammies did it all -- took care of the baby and "petted" Mary. I guess they vied with each other to gain her favor. I asked Louise if she knew anything about the Redd's claim of being French. (Grandpa used to say that he was of French descent.)
She said: "Oh, yes. He was French. We used to call him 'Old John Redd, the Frenchman.' He was a little, dark, dandy type of man, just like a Frenchman:"'
Leland Redd visited with Jessie Hardison when he was down in North Carolina, and on March 30, 1954, he wrote in a letter: "When Jessie Hardison was asked about what nationality he was, he said that the Hardisons were of the opinion and belief that they were of English and French descent."
John H. Redd's grandfather was John Hardison, and his grandmother was Ann. There were many French people in North Carolina in the early colonial days, and this "Ann" could have been French. We do not know her maiden name or any of her connections.
Whatever his nationality, John H. Redd was a good Latter-day Saint and a good father. And the fifth and sixth days of January 1858 were very important days for John H. Redd and his son, Lemuel Hardison Redd. We can only guess why they did as they did on those days, but the record of their activities is clear. They went to the county clerk's office in Provo. They went with a purpose, and they had probably planned their action carefully and definitely before they left home. On the fifth of January, John Hardison Redd deeded a corner of twenty acres of his own field to his son, Lemuel Hardison Redd. The transaction is recorded in Utah County Deed book E, page 237:
Know all men by these presents that I John H. Redd of Spanish Fork City, Utah County, Utah Territory do for and in consideration of the good will that I have for my son Lemuel H. Redd of the same county and Territory aforesaid do transfer quit claim, convey and relinquish all my right, title, claim and interest unto the said Lemuel H. Redd in a certain piece of farm land in lot No. 5 and block No. 20 bounded as follows, viz. beginning at my N.E. corner thence south to the Spanish Fork Creek thence up said Creek to William Pace's line, thence north with his N.W. corner, thence west to the beginning, containing by estimation 20 acres be the same, more or less, being part of a lot in the Spanish Fork survey to have and to hold the same unto the said Lemuel H. Redd his heirs or assigns. In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and seal this 5th day of Jany. A.D. 1858.
/s/ John H. Redd
Witnesses: J. W. Mackee John Robertson
Territory of Utah I certify that the signer County of Utah of the above transfer appeared this 5th day of Jany. A. D. 1858 and acknowledged that he of his own choice executed the foregoing transfer.
Following the above transaction, John H. Redd deeded all his properties to the church and entered the order.
Why did John H. Redd deed those twenty acres to his son when Lem wasn't going to keep them? It could have been so that Lemuel would have something to give to the United Order in order to prevent others from thinking that he had come into the order seeking help without making a substantial contribution. It is gratifying to realize the love and unity, which existed between this father and son. Four or five months later, when John H. passed on, this closeness must have been a source of real thankfulness and inspiration to his son, Lemuel. Of course, the two men must have stayed all night in Provo, because they could not have made the round trip in one day by slow ox team. Where did they stay? They could have stayed in the community "Camp Ground." It was common for all such cities to have a campground, and in later years they even had a house there with a fireplace in it, also for the use of campers. And as we know, the Redds were used to camping.
The record of the transfer of property to the church is found in Utah County Deeds book H, pages 132-133:
Be it known by these presents that I John Hardison Redd of Spanish Fork City in the county of Utah and Territory of Utah for and in consideration of the good will I have to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints give and convey unto Brigham Young Trustee in Trust his Successors in Office and assigns all my claim to and ownership of the following described property, to wit --
Lot eight (8)in Block Three (3) containing 72/160 of an acre in the Spanish Fork Survey of building lots in the aforesaid County and Territory, value $180.00 Also the E part of lot 5 in block 20 except 20 acres owned by L. H. Redd on the east side of said lot bounded on the W by Philo Allen containing 80 acres in the Spanish Fork Survey of farm land. $800.00 Four cows $30.00 each & three oxen at $40.00 each $240.00 3 steers at $30.00 each & two heifers at $25.00 each $140.00 Three calves at $7.00 & two colts at $75.00 $171.00 1 watch $10.00, Farming tool $40.00, 1 gun & pistole $30.00 $80.00 Two wagons at $50.00, thirty bus. potatoes $22.50 $72.50 Three swine $15.00, ten bus. corn $12.50 $27.50 Three hundred and fifty bushels wheat $525.00 $525.00 Household furniture, beds, bedding & stove $114.00
Total amount of John H. Redd's property $2350.00
Together with all the rights privileges and appertinances thereunto belonging or appertainces thereunto belonging I also covenant and agree that I am the lawful Claimant and Owner of said Property or and will warrant and forever defend unto the said Trustee in Trust for said Church his Successors in office and assigns against the claims of my heirs and assigns or any person whosoever.
/s/ John H. Redd
Witness: J. W. Makee
Philip Sykes Zebedee Coltrin Territory of Utah, County of Utah
I Lucius N. Scovil, recorder of the aforesaid County do certify that the signer of the above transfer personally known to me appeared this fifth day of Jany. A.D. 1858 and acknowledged that he of his own choice executed the foregoing transfer.
/s/ Lucius N. Scovil
John H. Redd entered the United Order between five and six months before he died. He did not have time to raise a crop under the Order, but he was converted to the idea and accepted it with full purpose of heart, just as he had accepted all the rest of the gospel.
John H. Redd was kicked by a horse, an accident which eventually caused his death. They sent to Salt Lake City for a doctor to care for John; the doctor was a Frenchman. When the doctor arrived he had a big scar on the side of his face, which pulled his mouth over to one side. It fascinated Louise, who was then about twelve years old. She said she stood in the doorway while the doctor was looking at John H., who was on the bed. The doctor's back was turned toward Louise, and she attempted to pull her own mouth to one side like the doctor's mouth. The doctor turned and caught her at it. She never forgot how embarrassed she was about it.
John Hardison Redd died in May 1858, at Spanish Fork, and he was buried in the upper graveyard with the other members of his family. It was sometimes called the Redd graveyard, but now it is designated as the "Pioneer Graveyard." SOME OF HIS WRITINGS
The bliss of man (could pride that blissing find) Is not to act or think beyond mankind.
All of God's commands are divinely pure.
Blest are their joys above, who do their time improve.
Contentment makes men happy without a fortune.
Drinking is the drowning of cares but not the cure of them.
Every plant and flower shows to us God's power.
Fate will still have a fine chance for the brave.
Good humor have never failing grace.
Idleness always brings disgrace.
Honor and fame procure praise.
Joyfully receive the kind admonition of a friend.
Knowledge enlarges our pleasures.
Love and veneration will bear no discard.
Misfortune is a touchstone of friendship.
Never lament and weep for the loss of what you cannot keep.
Open your heart to the petitions of the distressed.
Pure desire yields pleasant fruits.
Question not the sincerity of a friend.
Remember the benevolent acts of your neighbor.
Selfish disposition oft create displeasure.
Tempt not your friend with evil communications.
Usurp not authority where it does not belong.
Virtuous love produces peace and happiness.
Work hard to excel in learning.
Yield quietly to what comes unavoidably.
Zeal in right principle are very recommendable.
Avoid whatever is unbecoming.
Beware of inordinate passion.
Cherish every good propensity.
Death subdues every individual.
Encourage preserving industry.
Force is repugnant to true liberty.
Grandure cannot purchase peace.
Join every good solicitation.
Innocence secures real enjoyments.
Honor and fame procure praise.
Music charms the savage breast.
Learning improves human nature.
Overcome obstacles by perseverence.
Nothing so enchanting as beauty.
Quit vicious and disorderly company.
Reputation is obtained by merit.
Shame accompanies mean actions.
Pride indicates great want of sense.
Wisdom is always admirable.
Vanity excites ridicule and contempt.
Youth is incautious of difficulties.
Zeal animates our inmost thoughts.
A contented mind is an estimable treasure.
Boast not of the favor you bestow.
All our comforts proceed from the Father of Goodness.
We may live happy though our possessions are small.
Let us consider the proper means to effect our purpose.
We should be daily employed in doing good.
Pease of mind being secured, we may smile at misfortune.
Hope, the balm of life, soothes our sorrows under all circumstances.
No human happiness is so great as not to contain some imperfections.
While we are unoccupied with that which is good, evil is present.
Reasons whole pleasure all the joy of sense
Lie in three words, health, peace and competence.
Come bright improvement on the care of time.
Deceit discovers a little mind.
Deliberate well before you promise.
Deliberate slowly but execute promptly.
Enlarge your mind to receive wisdom.
Fanciful pleasures are the fruits of corruption.
To be good is to be wise and happy.
We were not made for ourselves only.
Modesty is one of the chief ornaments of youth.
No confidence can be placed in those who are in the habit of lying.
Neglect no opportunity of doing good.
Idleness is the parent of vice and misery.
Cleanliness promotes health of body and delicacy of mind.
The real wants of nature are soon supplied.
Merit the approbation of the wise and good.
How pleasant is the time when peace attend the mind But how distressing is the scene when treacherous heart we find. Remember will true love may be a bliss or trouble made In sweet consolation it is a bliss but bitter when betrayed -- Was I in exile sent away to Britainia's distant shore Where boisterous waves and stormy seas should beat forevermore With tender (care) my breaking heart should be your bosom rest While this poor life should linger out in trouble and distress.
SONG BALLAD WRITTEN FOR MARY CATHERINE REDD -- August 26, 1846
While nature was sinking in stillness to rest, The last beams of daylight shone dim in the west, O'er fields by the moonlight, with wandering feet Sought in quietudes hour a place of retreat. While passing a garden I heard then drew near A voice plain and plaintive arrested my ear The voice of a sufferer affected my heart, In agony pleading the poor sinner's part.
In offering to heaven his pitying prayer, He spoke of the torments the sinner must bear. His life for a ransom He offered to give, That sinners redeemed in glory might live. So deep were His sorrows, so fervent his prayers, That down on His bosom rolled sweat, blood and tears.
I wept to behold him, I asked Him his name.
He answered, 'Tis Jesus, from Heaven I came.
I am thy Redeemer for Thee I must die. This cup is most bitter, but cannot pass by. Thy sins like a mountain are laid upon Me, And all this deep anguish I suffer for thee.' I heard with deep anguish the tale of His woe, While tears like a fountain did flow. The cause of His sorrow, to hear Him repeat, Affected my heart, and I fell at His feet.
I trembled with horror and loudly did cry, 'Lord save a poor sinner, O save or I die.'
He smiled when He saw me and said to me,
'Live, Thy sins which are many, I freely forgive. ' How sweet was that moment; He bade me rejoice. His smile, O how sweet, how charming His voice.
I flew from the garden, I spread it abroad,
I shouted salvation and Glory to God.
I'm now on my journey to mansions above; My soul's full of glory, of light, peace and love. I think of the garden, the prayer and the tears, Of that loving Savior who banished my fears. The day of bright glory is rolling around,
When Gabriel descending, the trumpet shall sound
My soul, then, in raptures of glory shall rise, To gaze on my Savior with unclouded eyes.