Person:Henry II of England (1)

     
King Henry "Curtmantle" II , of England
Facts and Events
Name King Henry "Curtmantle" II , of England
Gender Male
Birth[1] 5 Mar 1133 Le Mans, Maine, France
Christening? 1149 France
Marriage 18 May 1152 Poitiers, Vienne, Franceto Eleanor of Aquitaine, Queen of England
Marriage BET 1166 AND 1176  Cohabitation without marriage formalities?  
to Alix , de Porhoët
Marriage  Cohabitation without marriage formalities?  
to Ykenai
Marriage  Cohabitation without marriage formalities?  
to Rosamund de Clifford
Marriage 1168  Cohabitation without marriage formalities?  
to Nest verch Iorwerth
Marriage abt 1176  Cohabitation without marriage formalities?  
to Ida de Toeni
Death[4] 6 Jul 1189 Chinon, Anjou, FranceChâteau de Chinon
Burial[3] 8 Jul 1189 Chinon, Anjou, FranceFontevrault Abbey
Other[1] House of Plantagenet
Will[6]


Names

He was born Henri of Anjou, and was known as Henry Curtmantle (Henri Courtmanteau) or Henry FitzEmpress. Plantagenêt was not used as the family name until the fifteenth century.

Biography

the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Henry II (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189), also known as Henry Curtmantle, Henry FitzEmpress or Henry Plantagenet, ruled as Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Count of Nantes, King of England (1154–89) and Lord of Ireland; at various times, he also controlled Wales, Scotland and Brittany. Henry was the son of Geoffrey of Anjou and Matilda, daughter of Henry I of England. He became actively involved by the age of 14 in his mother's efforts to claim the throne of England, then occupied by Stephen of Blois, and was made Duke of Normandy at 17. He inherited Anjou in 1151 and shortly afterwards married Eleanor of Aquitaine, whose marriage to Louis VII of France had recently been annulled. Stephen agreed to a peace treaty after Henry's military expedition to England in 1153: Henry inherited the kingdom on Stephen's death a year later.

Henry was an energetic and sometimes ruthless ruler, driven by a desire to restore the lands and privileges of his royal grandfather, Henry I. During the early years of the younger Henry's reign he restored the royal administration in England, re-established hegemony over Wales and gained full control over his lands in Anjou, Maine and Touraine. Henry's desire to reform the relationship with the Church led to conflict with his former friend Thomas Becket, the Archbishop of Canterbury. This controversy lasted for much of the 1160s and resulted in Becket's death in 1170. Henry soon came into conflict with Louis VII and the two rulers fought what has been termed a "cold war" over several decades. Henry expanded his empire, often at Louis' expense, taking Brittany and pushing east into central France and south into Toulouse; despite numerous peace conferences and treaties no lasting agreement was reached. By 1172, he controlled England, large parts of Wales, the eastern half of Ireland and the western half of France, an area that would later come to be called the Angevin Empire.

Henry and Eleanor had eight children. As they grew up, tensions over the future inheritance of the empire began to emerge, encouraged by Louis and his son King Philip II. In 1173 Henry's heir apparent, "Young Henry", rebelled in protest; he was joined by his brothers Richard and Geoffrey and by their mother, Eleanor. France, Scotland, Flanders and Boulogne allied themselves with the rebels. The Great Revolt was only defeated by his vigorous military action and talented local commanders, many of them "new men" appointed for their loyalty and administrative skills. Young Henry and Geoffrey revolted again in 1183, resulting in Young Henry's death. The Norman invasion of Ireland provided lands for his youngest son John, but Henry struggled to find ways to satisfy all his sons' desires for land and immediate power. Philip successfully played on Richard's fears that Henry would make John king, and a final rebellion broke out in 1189. Decisively defeated by Philip and Richard and suffering from a bleeding ulcer, Henry retreated to Chinon in Anjou, where he died.

Henry's empire quickly collapsed during the reign of his youngest son John. Many of the changes Henry introduced during his long rule, however, had long-term consequences. Henry's legal changes are generally considered to have laid the basis for the English Common Law, while his intervention in Brittany, Wales and Scotland shaped the development of their societies and governmental systems. Historical interpretations of Henry's reign have changed considerably over time. In the 18th century, scholars argued that Henry was a driving force in the creation of a genuinely English monarchy and, ultimately, a unified Britain. During the Victorian expansion of the British Empire, historians were keenly interested in the formation of Henry's own empire, but they also expressed concern over his private life and treatment of Becket. Late-20th-century historians have combined British and French historical accounts of Henry, challenging earlier Anglo-centric interpretations of his reign.


Henry was made duke of Normandy, and upon his father's death in 1151 he inherited the Angevin territories. His early attempts to reclaim the British throne, which he claimed through his mother, were unsuccessful. His marriage to Eleanor brought him vast territories in France. He invaded England in 1152-3, forcing King Stephen to acknowledge him as heir to the throne, which he ascended in 1154, thus controlling much of France and all of England. His sons and wife joined with Philip of France to defeat Henry in 1189, the year in which he died. He was succeeded by his son Richard. His son John later became king also.

Titles

Henry became Duke of Normandy when his father abdicated in his favor in 1150, and inherited the titles of Count of Anjou, Maine and Mortaine upon his father's death in 1151. After his marriage in 1152 he became Duke of Aquitaine and Count of Poitiers, by right of his wife. When King Stephen of England died in 1154, he inherited his mother's claim and became King of England. Finally, he created the title of Lord of Ireland with its partial conquest in 1171. He gave Mortain to King Stephen's son, William of Blois, in 1153. From 1170-1183 he shared his original patrimony of Normandy, Anjou, Maine and Mortaine with his son, Henry, the Young King. In 1172 he gave his wife's inheritance of Aquitaine and Poitiers to their son, Richard, and in 1185 he gave the Lordship of Ireland to their son, John.

  • 1154-1189 1st Anjevin King of England
  • 1150-1189 2nd Anjevin Duke of Normandy
  • 1151-1189 8th Anjevin Count of Anjou, 1170-1183 co-ruler with Henry, the Young King
  • 1151-1189 8th Anjevin Count of Maine, 1170-1183 co-ruler with Henry, the Young King
  • 1151-1153 2nd Anjevin Count of Mortaine
  • 1152-1172 1st Anjevin Duke of Aquitaine, in right of his wife
  • 1152-1189 1st Anjevin Count of Poitiers, in right of his wife
  • 1171-1185 1st Anjevin Lord of Ireland

Links

References
  1. 1.0 1.1 Henry II of England, in Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. (Online: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc.).
  2.   Henry II 'Curtmantle' d'Anjou, King of England, in Lundy, Darryl. The Peerage: A genealogical survey of the peerage of Britain as well as the royal families of Europe.
  3. King Henry II, in Find A Grave.
  4. HENRI d’Anjou, son of GEOFFROY "le Bel/Plantagenet" Comte d'Anjou et de Maine & his wife [Empress] Matilda [Maud] of England (Le Mans, Anjou 5 Mar 1133-Château de Chinon 6 Jul 1189, bur Abbaye de Fontevraul, in Cawley, Charles. Medieval Lands: A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families.
  5.   Henry II of England, in Baldwin, Stewart, and Todd Farmerie. The Henry Project (King Henry II ): Ancestors of King Henry II.
  6. Nichols, John. A collection of all the wills, now known to be extant, of the kings and queens of England, princes and princessess of Wales, and every branch of the blood royal: from the reign of William the Conqueror to that of Henry the Seventh, exclusive, with explanatory notes and a glossary. (London: J. Nichols, 1780), pages 7 to 10.

    The will may be read here (in Latin).

  7.   Henry had at least 12 illegitimate children by five or more women.
    *Ikenai (1150-1151)
    **Geoffrey, Archbishop of York
  8.   *unknown mistress
    **Hugh of Wells, Bishop of Lincoln (before 1154-1235)
  9.   *Alix de Porhoët, daughter of Eudes II de Porhoët, Duke of Brittany (1168)
    **Matilda ( -before 1202), Abbess of Barking, Essex
  10.   *Rosamund de Clifford , daughter of WALTER de Clifford & Margaret (1173-1176)
    **Peter
  11.   *Ida de Tosny
    **William de Longespée, Earl of Salisbury (1176- 7 Mar 1226)
  12.   *Nesta Iorwerth, She married Sir Ralph Bloet or Blewer.
    **Morgan (1180/89-after 1213) Provost of Berkeley, Yorkshire 1201.
  13.   *unknown mistress
    **Richard
Succession of Monarchs of the United Kingdom
Matilda

1141
his mother

Stephen

1135-1141, 1141-1154
his mother's cousin

King of England

1154-1189
with Henry the Young King

Richard I

1189-1199
his son

John

1199-1216
his son

French Nobility
Eustace IV of Boulogne

1135-1141
his second cousin
King Stephen's son

Geoffrey V of Anjou

1141-1151
his father

Count of Mortain

1151-1153

William I of Boulogne

1153-1159
his second cousin
King Stephen's son

Marie I of Boulogne
with Matthew I, her husband

1167-1173
his second cousin
King Stephen's daughter

Stephen

1135-1144
his mother's cousin

Geoffrey V of Anjou

1144-1150
his father

Duke of Normandy

1151-1189
with Henry the Young King

Richard I

1189-1199
his son

John

1199-1204
his son

Fulk V

1106-1129
his grandfather

Geoffrey V of Anjou

1129-1151
his father

Count of Anjou

1151-1189
with Henry the Young King

Richard I

1189-1199
his son

Arthur I

1199-1203
his nephew

Fulk V

1110-1126
his grandfather

Geoffrey V of Anjou

1126-1151
his father

Count of Maine

1151-1189
with Henry the Young King

Richard I

1186-1199
his son

John

1199-1203
his son

William X

1126-1137
Eleanor's father

Louis VII

1137-1152
Eleanor's first husband
with Eleanor of Aquitaine

Duke of Aquitaine

1152-1189
with his wife Eleanor of Aquitaine

Richard I

1189-1199
his son
with Eleanor of Aquitaine'

John

1199-1204
his son
with Eleanor of Aquitaine'

William VIII

1126-1137
Eleanor's father

Louis VII

1137-1152
Eleanor's first husband
with Eleanor of Aquitaine

Count of Poitiers

1152-1189
with his wife Eleanor of Aquitaine

William IX

1153-1156
his son

Otto IV

1196-1218
his grandson