m. BET 1627 AND 1628
Facts and Events
Information on Charles Calvert
Charles Calvert, 3rd Baron Baltimore (August 27, 1637 – February 21, 1715), inherited the colony in 1675 upon the death of his father, Cecil Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore, (1605–1675). He had been his father's Deputy Governor since 1661 when he arrived in the colony at the age of 24. However, Charles left Maryland for England in 1684 and would never return. The events following the Glorious Revolution in England in 1688 would cost Calvert his title to Maryland; in 1689 the royal charter to the colony was withdrawn, leading to direct rule by the British Crown. Calvert's political problems were largely caused by his Roman Catholic faith which was at odds with the established Church of England. Calvert married four times, outliving three wives, and had at least two children. He died in England in 1715 at the age of 78, his family fortunes much diminished. With his death he passed his title, and his claim to Maryland, to his second son Benedict Leonard Calvert, 4th Baron Baltimore (1679–1715), his eldest son Cecil having died young. However, Benedict Calvert would outlive his father by just two months, and It would fall to Charles' grandson, Charles Calvert, 5th Baron Baltimore, (1699–1751), (who converted to the Anglican faith) to see the family proprietorship in Maryland restored by the king.
Archives of Maryland (Biographical Series)
Biography: Founding of Maryland - Educational Project for Elementary and Middle School Students Maryland Public Television and Maryland State Archives (January-February 2003) written by Maria A. Day, MSA Archival Intern
Charles Calvert grew up with the knowledge that he would some day become the Third Lord Baltimore and Proprietary Governor of Maryland. As the son of Cecil Calvert and Anne Arundell, Charles lived the privileged life of an English noble. Charles was also raised Roman Catholic, just as the rest of the Calvert family was. As a young man, Charles witnessed the religious conflicts between Protestants and Catholics in the English Civil Wars. He watched his father, Cecil, handle very difficult political situations in order to protect his control of the Maryland Province. Cecil Calvert sent his 24-year-old son Charles to Maryland in 1661. Charles replaced his uncle Philip Calvert as Governor. Philip then became Charles' advisor in government affairs. Charles remained colonial Governor until his father's death in 1675. The colony's population and economy expanded quickly in Charles' term. Charles created four new counties on the Eastern Shore. During his term as Governor, Charles ordered many public projects to help Marylanders. He built court houses, jails, roads and highways. He improved the defense of the colony by building magazines where gunpowder could be stored. Under his administration, Maryland's government passed laws regulating how people could leave land to their heirs when they died. Charles also reformed the lower house in the Maryland Assembly, now called the House of Delegates. He decided to restrict voting to men who owned properties worth 40 pounds. He also ruled that only men who owned 1,000 acres of land could be elected as a delegate. He changed the voting requirements, because he was concerned that less wealthy delegates might oppose the Proprietary government. Slaves's lives were made more difficult under Charles's government. During his term, the Assembly officially made slavery legal, and ordered that slaves serve their masters for life.
In 1675, Cecil Calvert died in England. Charles inherited his father's lands, title and government roles. He became the Third Baron of Baltimore and new Lord Proprietor of Maryland. He was the first member of the Calvert family to serve both as Maryland's Governor and Lord Proprietor. Charles went to England shortly after his father died, but returned to live in Maryland and oversee the colony personally. During his years as Proprietor, there was a boundary dispute between Maryland and William Penn's Quaker colony in Pennsylvania. Charles left Maryland and sailed back to England in 1684 to settle this dispute with William Penn. Before the boundary line could be verified, another revolution happened in England. Two Protestants, King William and Queen Mary accepted joint rule of England. Since Charles was Catholic, the new King and Queen took away his right to govern Maryland. Now Maryland was ruled directly by the English Monarchy and overseen by a Royal Governor. Charles died in 1715 before he could recover power over his colony. In that same year, King George I granted Charles' grandson full proprietary rights to govern Maryland. The grandson was named Charles after him, and appears as a tiny boy in a famous portrait of his grandfather.
Charles CALVERT , 3rd Lord Baltimore BIRTH: 27 Aug 1637 DEATH: 21 Feb 1714/15 MC Sureties, p. 71 (55)
Father: Cecil CALVERT , 2nd Lord Baltimore Mother: Anne ARUNDELL
Family 1: Mary THORPE
Family 2: Margaret CHARLETON
Family 3: ? DARNALL MARRIAGE: ABT. 1660 MC Sureties, p. 71 (55)
Benedict Leonard CALVERT , 4th Lord Baltimore