President Abraham Lincoln
Facts and Events
||President Abraham Lincoln
||12 FEB 1809
||Hardin, Kentucky, United Statesnow part of LaRue county
||4 Nov 1842
||Springfield, Sangamon County, Illinoisto Mary Todd
||4 MAR 1861
||Washington, District of Columbia Co., DCthe 16th President of the United States Elected
||14 APR 1865
||Washington, District of Columbia
||04 MAY 1865
||Oak Ridge Cemetery, Springfield, Sangamon County, Illinois
- the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia
Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was the 16th President of the United States, serving from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. Lincoln successfully led the United States through its greatest constitutional, military, and moral crisis – the American Civil War – preserving the Union while ending slavery and promoting economic and financial modernization. Reared in a poor family on the western frontier, Lincoln was mostly self-educated, and became a country lawyer, a Whig Party leader, Illinois state legislator during the 1830s, and a one-term member of the United States House of Representatives during the 1840s.
After a series of debates in 1858 that gave national visibility to his opposition to the expansion of slavery, Lincoln lost a Senate race to his arch-rival, Stephen A. Douglas. Lincoln, a moderate from a swing state, secured the Republican Party presidential nomination in 1860. With almost no support in the South, Lincoln swept the North and was elected president in 1860. His election was the signal for seven southern slave states to declare their secession from the Union and form the Confederacy. The departure of the Southerners gave Lincoln's party firm control of Congress, but no formula for compromise or reconciliation was found. Lincoln explained in his second inaugural address: "Both parties deprecated war, but one of them would make war rather than let the Nation survive, and the other would accept war rather than let it perish, and the war came."
When the North enthusiastically rallied behind the national flag after the Confederate attack on Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861, Lincoln concentrated on the military and political dimensions of the war effort. His goal was now to reunite the nation. As the South was in a state of insurrection, Lincoln exercised his authority to suspend habeas corpus, arresting and temporarily detaining thousands of suspected secessionists without trial. Lincoln averted British recognition of the Confederacy by skillfully handling the Trent affair in late 1861. His efforts toward the abolition of slavery include issuing his Emancipation Proclamation in 1863, encouraging the border states to outlaw slavery, and helping push through Congress the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which finally freed all the slaves nationwide in December 1865. Lincoln closely supervised the war effort, especially the selection of top generals, including commanding general Ulysses S. Grant. Lincoln brought leaders of the major factions of his party into his cabinet and pressured them to cooperate. Under Lincoln's leadership, the Union set up a naval blockade that shut down the South's normal trade, took control of the border slave states at the start of the war, gained control of communications with gunboats on the southern river systems, and tried repeatedly to capture the Confederate capital at Richmond, Virginia. Each time a general failed, Lincoln substituted another until finally Grant succeeded in 1865.
An exceptionally astute politician deeply involved with power issues in each state, Lincoln reached out to War Democrats and managed his own re-election in the 1864 presidential election. As the leader of the moderate faction of the Republican party, Lincoln found his policies and personality were "blasted from all sides": Radical Republicans demanded harsher treatment of the South, War Democrats desired more compromise, Copperheads despised him, and irreconcilable secessionists plotted his death. Politically, Lincoln fought back with patronage, by pitting his opponents against each other, and by appealing to the American people with his powers of oratory. His Gettysburg Address of 1863 became the most quoted speech in American history. It was an iconic statement of America's dedication to the principles of nationalism, republicanism, equal rights, liberty, and democracy. At the close of the war, Lincoln held a moderate view of Reconstruction, seeking to reunite the nation speedily through a policy of generous reconciliation in the face of lingering and bitter divisiveness. Six days after the surrender of Confederate commanding general Robert E. Lee, however, Lincoln was assassinated by actor and Confederate sympathizer John Wilkes Booth. Lincoln's death was the first assassination of a U.S. president and sent the nation into mourning. Lincoln has been consistently ranked by scholars and the public as one of the three greatest U.S. presidents, the others being George Washington and Franklin D. Roosevelt.
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 Brown, John Howard (editor), and Rossiter (editor) Johnson. The Twentieth century biographical dictionary of notable Americans: brief biographies of authors, administrators, clergymen, commanders, editors, engineers, jurists, merchants, officials, philanthropists, scientists, statesmen, and others who are making American history. (Boston, Mass.: The Biographical Society. Reprinted by Gale Research, 1968., 1904), vol 6, page 426-430 "LINCOLN, Abraham, sixteenth president of the United States, was born in a log cabin on the Big South Fork of Nolin Creek, three miles from Hodgensville, LaRue county, Ky., Feb. 12, 1809; eldest son and second child of Thomas and Nancy (Hanks) Lincoln; grandson of Abraham and Mary (Shipley) Lincoln; great grandson of John Lincoln, who emigrated from New Jersey to Pennsylvania and thence to the wilds of western Virginia about 1758; great2 grandson of Mordecai and Hannah Bewne (Slater) Lincoln, this Mordecai removing from Scituate, Mass., in 1714 to Monmouth county, N.J., and thence to Pennsylvania; great3 grandson of Mordecai and Sarah (Jones) Lincoln, this Mordecai removing from Hingham to Scituate, Mass., about 1704, where he set up a furnace for smelting iron ore; and great4 grandson of Samuel Lincoln, born in Norfolk county, England, in 1620, who emigrated to Salem, Mass., in 1637 and in 1640 joined his brother Thomas, who had settled in Hingham, Mass.".
- ↑ Brown, John Howard (editor), and Rossiter (editor) Johnson. The Twentieth century biographical dictionary of notable Americans: brief biographies of authors, administrators, clergymen, commanders, editors, engineers, jurists, merchants, officials, philanthropists, scientists, statesmen, and others who are making American history. (Boston, Mass.: The Biographical Society. Reprinted by Gale Research, 1968., 1904), vol 6, page 426-430 "... on the evening of April 14, 1865, the President, Mrs. Lincoln, Miss Clara Harris and Major Ruthbone occupied a box at Ford's Theatre, Washington to witness the play "Our American Cousin." At 10:30 in the evening an obscure actor, entered the President's box from the rear of the stage and holding a pistol to the President's head, fired. The President fell forward unconscious, and in the confusion which followed the assassin leaped upon the stage but broke his leg in the leap, his spur being entangled in the American flag that draped the box. The President was carried to a house opposite the theatre where, on the morning of April 15, 1865, he died. On April 19, 1865, the funeral took place at the White House. The body was laid in state at the White House, and was there viewed by a great number of people. It was guarded by a company of high officers of the army and navy. The assassin of the President was found in a barn by a squadron of troops April 27, 1865, and was shot by a soldier before the officer could demand his surrender. The remains of the President lay in state in Baltimore, Harrisburg, Philadelphia, New York, Albany, Buffalo, Cleveland and Chicago; and at each place immense funeral processions marched through the streets and the whole country was in mourning. The funeral car reached Springfield, Ill., having travelled a distance of nearly 2000 miles, and the body was buried in Oak Ridge cemetery, May 4, 1865. A monument of white marble marks the spot.".
- ↑ Johnson, Rossiter. Twentieth Century Biographical Dictionary of Notable Americans, Second Title: Biographies of Notable Americans 1904, Second Publisher: Ancest. (The Biographical Society, Boston, 1904), vol. 6, page 426-430, "The funeral car reached Springfield, Ill., having travelled a distance of nearly 2000 miles, and the body was buried in Oak Ridge cemetery, May 4, 1865. A monument of white marble marks the spot".
- Abraham Lincoln, in Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. (Online: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc.).
- Barton, William E. (William Eleazar). The paternity of Abraham Lincoln: was he the son of Thomas Lincoln? : an essay on the chastity of Nancy Hanks. (Salt Lake City, Utah: Genealogical Society of Utah, 1995), Pg 402, 403.
Peter Atherton witnessed the last will and testament of Joseph Hanks, the grandfather of Abraham Lincoln.
- Stowell, Daniel W. Editor, and Christopher A. Assistant Editor Schnell. The Papers of Abraham Lincoln: Legal Documents and Cases. (University of Virginia Press, 2008).
- ↑ was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth